The Canons Of The Old Testament & The New Testament Through The Ages

M S M Saifullah

© Islamic Awareness, All Rights Reserved.

First Composed: 16th November 2003

Last Updated: 11th March 2007


Assalamu-‘alaykum wa rahamatullahi wa barakatuhu:

1. Introduction

We present the canons of the Old and the New Testament through the ages. The list divided into the Old Testament and the New Testament to keep it manageable. As one can see, the list is certainly not exhaustive and has a potential to develop into a long one in the future.

Our list has got a similar structure as the compilation of Paul Harvey. Harvey's list is quite exhaustive with some drawbacks: lack of proper references for each canon as well as errors. The difference between our list and that of Harvey's is that we have provided references for each canon so that the interested reader can verify for himself or herself the contents of the canon. The references would also be an aid for further investigation. Furthermore, we have also provided notes which the readers might find useful (hopefully!).

Since the list of the canons through ages is quite long, there is a possibility of errors creeping in. In case, if you find any errors please do not hesistate to email us with the name of the canon, the error as well as the reference(s) to support your viewpoint.

2. Symbols Used

P Present

PnPresent and fit for ecclesiastical or catechetical purposes, but does not constitute as an apocrypha.

PePresent in the end as apocrypha

PiPresent but incomplete or some parts missing

PmPresent in modified form

PsPresent, taken from Syriac

? Disputed

RRejected as apocrypha or spurious

MMissing, e.g., because of loss or omission in the manuscript

.Not present or not listed

3. Old Testament

Name
Year
Torah Nevi'im Kethuvim Esther Esther additions Daniel additions Baruch Epis. of Jeremiah
Psalms additions I
Psalms additions II III Esdras IV Esdras Tobit Judith Wisdom of Solomon Wisdom of Jesus b. Sirach Prayer of Manasseh I Maccab. II Maccab. III Maccab. IV Maccab. Psalms of Solomon Apocaly. of Baruch Enoch Jubilees
II Esdras 14:45 ~95 P P P P . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Common EraCommon EraCommon EraCommon Era
Philo ~40 P M M . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Josephus ~90 P P P P . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Marcion ~140 R R R . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Melito ~170 P P P . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Muratorian ~170 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . P . . . . . . . . . .
Clement ~170 P P P P . . P . . . P . P P P P . . . . . . . . .
Irenaeus ~177 P P P P . P P . . . . . . . P . . . . . . . . . .
Tertullian 240 P P P P . . P . . . . . . . P P . . . . . . . Pn .
Origen 253 P Pi P P . . . P . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Eusebius ~320 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Cyril ~350 P P P P . . P P . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Claromontanus ~350 P P P P . . . . . . . . P P . . . P P P P . . . .
Sinaiticus ~350 Pi Pi Pi P . . . . . . . . P Pi P P . P M M P . . . .
Vaticanus ~350 P P Pi P . . P P . . . . P P P P . . . . . . . . .
Hilary ~360 P P P P . . . P . . . . P P . . . . . . . . . . .
Cheltenham 360 P P P P . . . . . . . . P P . . . . . . . . . . .
Laodicea 363 P P P P . . P P . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Athanasius 367 P P P Pn . . P P . . . . Pn Pn Pn Pn . . . . . . . . .
Epiphanius ~374 P P P P . . P P . . . . . . P P . . . . . . . . .
Apostolic C 380 P P P P . . . . . . . . . P . P . P P P . . . . .
Gregory 390 P P P . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Jerome ~390 P P P P . . . . . . . . Pn Pn Pn Pn . Pn Pn . . . . . .
Amphilochius 394 P P P ? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Augustine 395 P P P P . . . . . . . . P P P P . P P . . . . . .
Carthage III 397 P P P P . . . . . . . . P P P P . P P . . . . . .
Philastrius 397 P P P P . . . . . . . . . . Pn . . . . . . . . . .
Didymus ~398 Pi Pi Pi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Addai ~400 P P . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Peshitta ~400 P P P P . P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P . .
Alexandrinus ~400 P P P P . . P P P . . . P P P P . P P P P . . . .
Innocent I 405 P P P P . . . . . . . . P P P . . P P . . P . . .
Chrysostom 407 P P P P . . . . . . . . P P P P . . . . . . . . .
Rufinus 410 P P P P . . . . . . . . Pn Pn Pn Pn . Pn Pn Pn Pn . . . .
Washingtoniasus ~450 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Theodoret ~458 P P P P . . . . . . . . P P P P . . . . . . . . .
Gelasius ~500 P P P P . . . . . . . . P P P P . P P . . . . . .
Greek Orthodox ~550 P P P P P P P P P . P . P P P P P P P P . . . . .
Junilius ~550 P Pi Pi Pn . . . . . . . . . Pn P P . Pn Pn . . . . . .
Cassiodorus 560 P P P P . . . . . . . . P P P P . P P . . . . . .
IslamIslamIslamIslam
Year Torah Nevi'im Kethuvim Esther Esther additions Daniel additions Baruch Epis. of Jeremiah
Psalms additions I
Psalms additions II III Esdras IV Esdras Tobit Judith Wisdom of Solomon Wisdom of Jesus b. Sirach Prayer of Manasseh I Maccab. II Maccab. III Maccab. IV Maccab. Psalms of Solomon Apocaly. of Baruch Enoch Jubilees
Leontius ~620 P P P . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Isidore 636 P P P P . . . . . . . . P P P P . P P . . . . . .
Talmud ~700 P P P P . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
John of Damascus ~725 P P P P . . . . . . . . . . Pn Pn . . . . . . . . .
Nicephorus 828 P P P ? . ? P . . . . . ? ? ? ? . ? ? ? . ? . R .
Anastasius 880 P P P . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Alfric 1006 P P P P . . . . . . . . P P P P . P P . . . . . .
Hugo of St. Victor 1140 P P P P . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Alexius 1165 P P P P . . . . . . . . . . Pn Pn . P P P . . . . .
John of Salisbury 1166 P P P P . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Ethiopic ~1300 P P P P P P P P P . P P P P P P P P P P . . . P P
Ebed Jesu 1318 P P P P . P P . . . P P P P P P . P . . P . . . .
Wycliffe ~1400 P P P P P P P P . . P P P P P P P P P . . . . . .
Gutenberg 1456 P P P P P P P P . . P P P P P P P P P . . . . . .
Low German 1480 P P P P P P P P . . . . P P P P . P P . . . . . .
Soncino 1488 P P P P . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ReformationReformationReformationReformation
Year Torah Nevi'im Kethuvim Esther Esther additions Daniel additions Baruch Epis. of Jeremiah
Psalms additions I
Psalms additions II III Esdras IV Esdras Tobit Judith Wisdom of Solomon Wisdom of Jesus b. Sirach Prayer of Manasseh I Maccab. II Maccab. III Maccab. IV Maccab. Psalms of Solomon Apocaly. of Baruch Enoch Jubilees
Complutensian 1514 P P P P Pn Pn Pn Pn . . . . Pn Pn Pn Pn Pn Pn Pn Pn . . . . .
Karlstadt 1520 P P P P . R R . . . R R Pn Pn Pn Pn R Pn Pn . . . . . .
Tyndale 1526 P . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Pagninus 1528 P P P P . . Pe Pe . . . . Pe Pe Pe Pe . Pe Pe . . . . . .
Oecolampadius 1530 P P P P . Pn Pn . . . Pn Pn Pn Pn . . . Pn Pn Pn . . . . .
Coverdale 1535 P P P P Pe Pe P P . . Pe Pe Pe Pe Pe Pe . Pe Pe . . . . . .
Luther Bible 1538 P P P P Pe Pe Pe . . . . . Pe Pe Pe Pe . Pe Pe . . . . . .
Great 1539 P P P P P P P P . . P P P P P P P P P . . . . . .
C. Trent 1546 P P P P P P P P . . . . P P P P . P P . . . . . .
Louvain 1550 P P P P P P P P . . P P P P P P . P P . . . . . .
Stephanus 1555 P P P P P P P . . . P P P P P P . P P . . . . . .
French C. 1559 P P P P . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Beza 1560 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Geneva 1560 P P P P Pe Pe Pe Pe . . Pe Pe Pe Pe Pe Pe Pe Pe Pe . . . . . .
Belgian C. 1563 P P P P R R R R . . R R R R R R R R R . . . . . .
Calvin 1564 P P P P . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Emden (NE) 1571 P P P P Pe Pe Pe Pe . . Pe Pe Pe Pe Pe Pe Pe Pe Pe Pe . . . . .
39 Articles 1571 P P P P Pn Pn Pn Pn . . Pn Pn Pn Pn Pn Pn Pn Pn Pn . . . . . .
Bishops' 1575 P P P P P P P P . . P P P P P P P P P . . . . . .
Canin (R) 1599 P P P P Pe Pe Pe Pe . . Pe Pe Pe Pe Pe Pe Pe Pe Pe Pe . . . . .
T & J 1603 P P P P Pe Pe Pe Pe . . Pe Pe Pe Pe Pe Pe Pe Pe Pe Pe . . . . .
Batavia 1608 P P P P Pe Pe Pe Pe . . Pe Pe Pe Pe Pe Pe Pe Pe Pe Pe . . . . .
Duoay-Rheims 1609 P P P P P P P P . . Pe Pe P P P P Pe P P . ? . . R .
AV (KJV) 1611 P P P P Pe Pe Pe Pe . . Pe Pe Pe Pe Pe Pe Pe Pe Pe . . . . . .
Elzevir 1633 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Westminster C. 1646 P P P P R R R R . . R R R R R R R R R . . . . . .
Savoy D. 1658 P P P P . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Port Royal 1667 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Swiss D. 1675 P P P P . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Westcott & Hort 1881 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Rahlfs LXX 1935 P P P P P P P P P . P P P P P P P P P P P P . . .
Lamsa 1957 Ps Ps Ps Ps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
RSV 1965 P P P P Pe Pe Pe Pe . . Pe Pe Pe Pe Pe Pe Pe Pe Pe . . . . . .
BHS 1966 P P P P . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
GNT-UBS1 1966 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
NIV 1973 Pm Pm Pm Pm . . . . . . . . . .   . . . . . . . . . .
Neo-Vulgate 1983 P P P P P P P P . . . . P P P P P P P . . . . . .
GNT-UBS3 1983 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Jerusalem Bible 1985 P P P P P P P P . . . . P P P P P P P . . . . . .
JPS Tanakh 1985 P P P P . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
GNT-UBS4 1994 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Torah (Teachings): Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy

Nevi'im (Prophets): 7 Major Prophets: Joshua, Judges, Samuel, Kings, Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel; 12 Minor Prophets: Hosea, Joel, Amos, Obadiah, Jonah, Micah, Nahum, Habakkuk, Zephaniah, Haggai, Zechariah, Malachi.

Kethuvim (Writings): Psalms, Proverbs, Job, Song of Songs, Ruth, Lamentations, Ecclesiastes, Esther (see below), Daniel, Ezra, Nehemiah, Chronicles.

Esther: For comparison indicated separately from Kethuvim.

Esther Additions: Additions to Greek Esther of Septuagint.

Daniel Addition: Additions to Greek Daniel: Prayer of Azariah, Bel, Susanna.

Baruch: Written in Greek.

Epistle of Jeremiah: Greek fragments found at Qumran Cave 7, additions to Greek Jeremiah of Septuagint

Psalm 151: Qumran 11QPs(a)151.

Psalms 152-155: Qumran 11QPs(a)154, 155.

III Esdras: Written in Greek.

IV Esdras: Written in Greek.

Tobit: 1 Hebrew and 3 Aramaic manuscripts found at Qumran Cave 4.

Judith: Written in Hebrew.

Wisdom of Solomon: Written in Greek.

Wisdom of Jesus ben Sirach (Ecclesiasticus): Qumran C. 2, Masada.

Prayer of Manasseh: Written in Greek.

I Maccabees: Written in Greek.

II Maccabees: Written in Greek.

III Maccabees: Written in Greek.

IV Maccabees: Written in Greek.

Psalms of Solomon: Written in Hebrew.

Apocalypse of Baruch:

Enoch: 8 Aramaic manuscripts found at Qumran Cave 4.

Jubilees: 10 Hebrew manuscripts found at Qumran Caves 1 ,2, 4.

4. New Testament

Name
Year Didache Epistle of Barnabas Shep. of Hermas I and II Clement Testament of the 12 Patriarchs Gospel of Mark Addition to G. of Mark Gospel of Matthew Gospel of Luke Gospel of John Addition to G. of John Diates- saron of Tatian Gospel of Peter Gospel of Thomas Gospel of Hebrews Acts Acts with "Western" additions 10 Pauline Letters Pastoral Epistles Hebrews III Corinthians Acts of Paul Marcion James I Peter II Peter I John Addition to I John II John III John Jude Rev. of John Rev. of Peter Apos. Constitutions Epistle to Laodiceans
II Esdras 14:45
~95 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Common EraCommon EraCommon EraCommon EraCommon Era
Philo
~40 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Josephus
~90 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Marcion
~140 . . . . . . . . Pm . . . . . . R . P R . . . P . . . . . . . . . . . .
Melito
~170 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Muratorian
~170 . . ? . . P . . P P . . . . . P . P P . . . R . . . P . P . P ? ? . R
Clement
~170 . P P P . P . P P P . . . . Pn P . P P P . . . . P . P . . . P P P . .
Irenaeus
~177 . . P . . P . P P P . . . . . P . Pi P P . . . . P . P . . . . P . . .
Tertullian
240 . P R . . P . P P P . . . . . P . P . P . . . . P . P . . . P P . . .
Origen
253 . . . . . P . P P P . . . . . P . ? . P . . . . P ? P . ? ? . P . . .
Eusebius
~320 R R R . . P . P P P . . R R R P . P P ? . R . ? P ? P . ? ? ? ? R . .
Cyril
~350 . . . . . P . P P P . . . R . P . P P P . . . P P P P . P P P . . . .
Claromontanus
~350 . P P . . P . P P P . . . . . P . Pi P . . P . P P P P . P P P P P . .
Sinaiticus
~350 . P P . . P . P P P . . . . . P . P P P . . . P P P P . P P P P . . .
Vaticanus
~350 . . . . . P . P P P . . . . . P . P . P . . . P P P P . P P P . . . .
Hilary
~360 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Cheltenham
360 . . . . . P . P P P . . . . . P . P . . . . . . P P P . P P . P . . .
Laodicea
363 . . . . . P . P P P . . . . . P . P P P . . . P P P P . P P P . . . .
Athanasius
367 Pn . Pn . . P . P P P . . . . . P . P P P . . . P P P P . P P P P . . .
Epiphanius
~374 . . . . . P . P P P . . . . . P . P P P . . . P P P P . P P P P . . .
Apostolic C
380 . . . P . P . P P P . . . . . P . P P P . . . P P P P . P P P . . P .
Gregory
390 . . . . . P . P P P . . . . . P . P P P . . . P P P P . P P P . . . .
Jerome
~390 . . . . . P . P P P . . . . . P . P P P . . . P P P P . P P P P . . .
Amphilochius
394 . . . . . P . P P P . . . . . P . P P ? . . . ? ? ? ? . ? ? ? ? . . .
Augustine
395 . . . . . P . P P P . . . . . P . P P P . . . P P P P . P P P P . . .
Carthage III
397 . . . . . P . P P P . . . . . P . P P P . . . P P P P . P P P P . . .
Philastrius
397 . . . . . P . P P P . . . . . P . P P . . . . P P P P . P P P . . . .
Didymus
~398 P P P Pi . P . P P P . . . . . P . Pi P . . . . P P P P . . . P P . . .
Addai
~400 . . . . . . . . . . . P . . . P . P P P . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Peshitta
~400 . . . . . P . P P P . . . . . P . P P P R . . P P . P . . . . . . . .
Alexandrinus
~400 . . . P . P . P P P . . . . . P . P P P . . . P P P P . P P P P . . .
Innocent I
405 . . . . . P . P P P . . . . . P . P P P . . . P P P P . P P P P . . .
Chrysostom
407 . . . . . P . P P P . . . . . P . P P P . . . P P . P . . . . . . . .
Rufinus
410 . Pn Pn . . P . P P P . . . . . P . P P P . . . P P P P . P P P P . . .
Washingtoniasus
~450 . . . . . P . P P P . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Theodoret
~458 . . . . . P . P P P . . . . . P . P P P . . . P P . P . . . . . . . .
Gelsius
~500 . . R . . P . P P P . . . . . P . P P P . . . P P P P . P P P P R . .
Greek Orthodox
~550 . . . . . P P P P P . . . . . . P P P P . . . P P P P . P P P P . . .
Junilius
~550 . . . . . P . P P P . . . . . P . P P P . . . P P P P . P P P ? . . .
Cassiodorus
560 . . . . . P . P P P . . . . . P . P P P . . . P P P P . P P P P . . .
IslamIslamIslamIslamIslam
Year Didache Epistle of Barnabas Shep. of Hermas I and II Clement Testament of the 12 Patriarchs Gospel of Mark Addition to G. of Mark Gospel of Matthew Gospel of Luke Gospel of John Addition to G. of John Diates- saron of Tatian Gospel of Peter Gospel of Thomas Gospel of Hebrews Acts Acts with "Western" additions 10 Pauline Letters Pastoral Epistles Hebrews III Corinthians Acts of Paul Marcion James I Peter II Peter I John Addition to I John II John III John Jude Rev. of John Rev. of Peter Apos. Constitutions Epistle to Laodiceans
Leontius
~620 . . . . . P . P P P . . . . . P . P P P . . . P P P P . P P P P . . .
Isidore
636 . . . . . P . P P P . . . . . P . P P P . . . P P P P . P P P P . . .
Talmud
~700 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
John of Damascus
~725 . . . . . P . P P P . . . . . P . P P P . . . P P P P . P P P P . P .
Nicephorus
828 . ? R R . P . P P P . . . . ? P . P P P . . . P P P P . P P P ? ? . .
Anastasius
880 . . . . . P . P P P . . . . . P . P P P . . . P P P P . P P P . . . .
Alfric
1006 . . . . . P . P P P . . . . . P . P P P . . . P P P P . P P P P . . P
Hugo of St. Victor
1140 . . . . . P . P P P . . . . . P . P P P . . . P P P P . P P P P . . .
Alexius
1165 . . . P . P . P P P . . . . . P . P P P . . . P P P P . P P P P . P .
John of Salisbury
1166 . . R . . P . P P P . . . . . P . P P P . . . P P P P . P P P P . . P
Ethiopic
~1300 . . P P . P P P P P P . . . . . P P P P . . . P P P P . P P P P . P .
Ebed Jesu
1318 . . . . . P . P P P . . . . . P . P P P . . . P P . P . . . . . . . .
Wycliffe
~1400 . . . . . P P P P P P . . . . . P P P P . . . P P P P P P P P P . . P
Gutenberg
1456 . . . . . P P P P P P . . . . . P P P P . . . P P P P P P P P P . . .
Low German
1480 . . . . . P P P P P P . . . . . P P P P . . . P P P P P P P P P . . .
Soncino
1488 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ReformationReformationReformationReformationReformation
Year Didache Epistle of Barnabas Shep. of Hermas I and II Clement Testament of the 12 Patriarchs Gospel of Mark Addition to G. of Mark Gospel of Matthew Gospel of Luke Gospel of John Addition to G. of John Diates- saron of Tatian Gospel of Peter Gospel of Thomas Gospel of Hebrews Acts Acts with "Western" additions 10 Pauline Letters Pastoral Epistles Hebrews III Corinthians Acts of Paul Marcion James I Peter II Peter I John Addition to I John II John III John Jude Rev. of John Rev. of Peter Apos. Constitutions Epistle to Laodiceans
Complutensian
1514 . . . . . P P P P P P . . . . . P P P P . . . P P P P P P P P P . . .
Karlstadt
1520 . . . . . P P P P P P . . . . . P P P P . . . P P P P P P P P P . . .
Tyndale
1526 . . . . . P P P P P P . . . . . P P P P . . . P P P P P P P P P . . .
Pagninus
1528 . . . . . P P P P P P . . . . . P P P P . . . P P P P P P P P P . . .
Oecolampadius
1530 . . . . . P P P P P P . . . . . P P P P . . . Pn P Pn P P Pn Pn Pn Pn . . .
Coverdale
1535 . . . . . P P P P P P . . . . . P P P P . . . P P P P P P P P P . . .
Luther Bible
1538 . . . . . P P P P P P . . . . . P P P Pe . . . Pe P P P P P P Pe Pe . . .
Great
1539 . . . . . P P P P P P . . . . . P P P P . . . P P P P P P P P P . . .
C. Trent
1546 . . . . . P P P P P P . . . . . P P P P . . . P P P P P P P P P . . .
Louvain
1550 . . . . . P P P P P P . . . . . P P P P . . . P P P P P P P P P . . .
Stephanus
1555 . . . . . P P P P P P . . . . . P P P P . . . P P P P P P P P P . . .
French C.
1559 . . . . . P P P P P P . . . . . P P P P . . . P P P P P P P P P . . .
Beza
1560 . . . . . P P P P P P . . . . . P P P P . . . P P P P P P P P P . . .
Geneva
1560 . . . . . P P P P P P . . . . . P P P P . . . P P P P P P P P P . . .
Belgian C.
1563 . . . . . P P P P P P . . . . . P P P P . . . P P P P P P P P P . . .
Calvin
1564 . . . . . P P P P P P . . . . . P P P P . . . P P P P P P P P P . . .
Emden (NE)
1571 . . . . . P P P P P P . . . . . P P P P . . . P P P P P P P P P . . .
39 Articles
1571 . . . . . P P P P P P . . . . . P P P P . . . P P P P P P P P P . . .
Bishops'
1575 . . . . . P P P P P P . . . . . P P P P . . . P P P P P P P P P . . .
Canin (R)
1599 . . . . . P P P P P P . . . . . P P P P . . . P P P P P P P P P . . .
T & J
1603 . . . . . P P P P P P . . . . . P P P P . . . P P P P P P P P P . . .
Batavia
1608 . . . . . P P P P P P . . . . . P P P P . . . P P P P P P P P P . . .
Duoay-Rheims
1609 . . . . . P P P P P P . . R . . P P P P . . . P P P P P P P P P . . .
AV (KJV)
1611 . . . . . P P P P P P . . . . . P P P P . . . P P P P P P P P P . . .
Elzevir
1633 . . . . . P P P P P P . . . . . P P P P . . . P P P P P P P P P . . .
Westminster C.
1646 . . . . . P P P P P P . . . . . P P P P . . . P P P P P P P P P . . .
Savoy D.
1658 . . . . . P P P P P P . . . . . P P P P . . . P P P P P P P P P . . .
Port Royal
1667 . . . . . P P P P P P . . . . . P P P P . . . P P P P P P P P P . . .
Swiss D.
1675 . . . . . P P P P P P . . . . . P P P P . . . P P P P P P P P P . . .
Westcott & Hort
1881 . . . . . P P P P P P . . . . P . P P P . . . P P P P R P P P P . . .
Rahlfs LXX
1935 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Lamsa
1957 . . . . . Ps Ps Ps Ps Ps Ps . . . . . Ps Ps Ps Ps . . . Ps Ps Ps Ps . Ps Ps Ps Ps . . .
RSV
1965 . . . . . P . P P P . . . . . P . P P P . . . P P P P . P P P P . . .
BHS
1966 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
GNT-UBS1
1966 . . . . . P P P P P . . . . . P . P P P . . . P P P P . P P P P . . .
NIV
1973 . . . . . Pm Pm Pm Pm Pm Pm . . . . Pm . Pm Pm Pm . . . Pm Pm Pm Pm . Pm Pm Pm Pm . . .
Neo-Vulgate
1979 . . . . . P P P P P P . . . . . P P P P . . . P P P P P P P P P . . .
GNT-UBS3
1983 . . . . . P P P P P P . . . . P . P P P . . . P P P P . P P P P . . .
Jerusalem Bible
1985 . . . . . P P P P P P . . . . P . P P P . . . P P P P . P P P P . . .
JPS Tanakh
1985 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
GNT-UBS4
1994 . . . . . P P P P P P . . . . P . P P P . . . P P P P . P P P P . . .

Didache: Instructions of the Apostles.

Epistle of Barnabas:

Shephard of Hermas: Written in Rome.

I and II Clement: I = To Corinth. II= Sermon.

Testaments of 12 Patriarchs: Hebrew - Aramaic fragments Qumran 1,4.

Gospel of Mark:

Additions to Gospel of Mark: Mk 16:9-20.

Gospel of Matthew:

Gospel of Luke:

Gospel of John:

Additions to Gospel of John: Jn 7:53 - 8:11.

Tatian's Diatessaron or 4 in 1 Gospel:

Gospel of Peter:

Gospel of Thomas:

Gospel of Hebrews: Jewish-Christian Gospels.

"Alexandrian" Acts of the Apostles: "Alexandrian" version of Acts ,

"Western" Acts of the Apostles: "Western" version of Luke's Acts, ~10% larger.

10 Traditional Letters of Paul: Romans, I and II Corinthians, Galatians, Ephesians, Philippians, Colossians, I and II Thessalonians, Philemon.

Pastoral Epistles: I and II Timothy; Titus.

Hebrews: Letter to the Hebrews

III Corinthians:

Acts of Paul:

Marcion: Marcion's Antitheses

James: Letter of James

I Peter: 1st Letter of Peter

II Peter: 2nd Letter of Peter

I John: 1st Letter of John.

Additions to I John: Comma Johanneum, 1 Jn 5:7.

II John: 2nd Letter of John.

III John: 3rd Letter of John

Jude: Letter of Jude.

Revelation of John: Apocalypse of John.

Revelation of Peter:

Apostolic Constitutions of Orthodox Christianity:

Epistle to the Laodiceans:


Notes & References

II Esdras 14:45: (~ 95 BCE). B. F. Westcott, The Bible In The Church: A Popular Account Of The Collection And Reception Of The Holy Scriptures In The Christian Churches, 1879, Macmillan & Co.: London, p. 37.

It claims 24 canonical books but without naming them. Presumably, they are the same as modern day Jewish canon.Verse 14:46 claims 70 books unworthy to read and to be given only to the wise.

Philo: (~ 40 CE). B. F. Westcott, The Bible In The Church: A Popular Account Of The Collection And Reception Of The Holy Scriptures In The Christian Churches, 1879, Macmillan & Co.: London, pp. 30-34; Also see "Philo Judaeus", The Jewish Encyclopedia.com.

The extent of his canon can not be exactly determined. He does not quote Ezekiel, Daniel, Canticles, Ruth, Lamentations, Ecclesiastes, or Esther.

Flavius Josephus: (~ 90 CE). B. F. Westcott, The Bible In The Church: A Popular Account Of The Collection And Reception Of The Holy Scriptures In The Christian Churches, 1879, Macmillan & Co.: London, pp. 25-30.

Josephus claims exactly 22 books: 5 Law, 13 History, 4 Hymns; but doesn't actually name the books.

Marcion: (~ 140 CE). B. F. Westcott, A General Survey Of The History Of The Canon Of The New Testament, 1896, Seventh Edition, Macmillan & Co. Ltd., London, pp. 318-325.

The extent of Old Testament canon during the time of Marcion is not known.

Melito: (~ 170 CE). G. M. Hahneman, The Muratorian Fragment And The Development Of The Canon, 1992, Clarendon Press: Oxford, pp. 78-79; L. M. McDonald and J. A. Sanders (ed.), The Canon Debate, 2002, Hendrickson Publishers, Inc.: Peabody (MA), see Appendix C and Appendix D.

Esther is absent.

Muratorian Canon: (~ 170 CE). B. M. Metzger, The Canon Of The New Testament: Its Origin, Significance & Development, 1997, Clarendon Press, Oxford, pp. 191-201 and 305-307. A comprehensive discussion is in G. M. Hahneman, The Muratorian Fragment And The Development Of The Canon, 1992, Clarendon Press: Oxford.

It is the one of the most important documents for the early history of the canon of the New Testament. Composed in Latin. Named after its discoverer Ludvico Antonio Muratori and was published by him in 1740.

Clement of Alexandria (d. 203 CE): B. F. Westcott, The Bible In The Church: A Popular Account Of The Collection And Reception Of The Holy Scriptures In The Christian Churches, 1879, Macmillan & Co.: London, pp. 126-127; B. F. Westcott, A General Survey Of The History Of The Canon Of The New Testament, 1896, Seventh Edition, Macmillan & Co. Ltd., London, pp. 360-363.

The writings of Clement contain no special catalogue of the sacred books. The books mentioned in his "canon" are those which is quotes as scripture. There is no mention of 2 John, 3 John, James and 2 Peter in his writings. It is not clear if he was acquainted with the latter two. Notice that Revelation of Peter, the Shepherd of Hermas, Epistle of Barnabas and Clement's Letters are used as scriptures. The Gospel of Hebrews and Gospel of Egyptians are mentioned without giving them any place in the Christian scripture.

Irenaeus (d. 203 CE): B. F. Westcott, The Bible In The Church: A Popular Account Of The Collection And Reception Of The Holy Scriptures In The Christian Churches, 1879, Macmillan & Co.: London, pp. 122-123; B. F. Westcott, A General Survey Of The History Of The Canon Of The New Testament, 1896, Seventh Edition, Macmillan & Co. Ltd., London, pp. 390-391.

Irenaeus was a Bishop of Lyons. He was one of the earliest persons to form an opinion on biblical canon. Irenaeus' Old Testament shows a growing influence of the LXX. He quotes from additions to Daniel, Baruch and Wisdom. In his New Testament, Shepherd of Hermas is considered as scripture. There is no mention of Philemon, 2 John, 3 John, 2 Peter, Jude and James. According to Eusebius, Irenaeus also mentions the Book of Hebrews.

Tertullian (d. 240 CE): B. F. Westcott, The Bible In The Church: A Popular Account Of The Collection And Reception Of The Holy Scriptures In The Christian Churches, 1879, Macmillan & Co.: London, pp. 130-131; B. F. Westcott, A General Survey Of The History Of The Canon Of The New Testament, 1896, Seventh Edition, Macmillan & Co. Ltd., London, pp. 351-352.

Tertullian (Quintus Septimius Florens Tertullianus) belong to the churches of Carthage and Hippo. There is no mention of 2 John, 3 John, 2 Peter and James by Tertullain. It appears that he was unaware of them.

Origen: (d. 253 CE). G. M. Hahneman, The Muratorian Fragment And The Development Of The Canon, 1992, Clarendon Press: Oxford, pp. 78-79; L. M. McDonald and J. A. Sanders (ed.), The Canon Debate, 2002, Hendrickson Publishers, Inc.: Peabody (MA), see Appendix C and Appendix D; B. M. Metzger, The Canon Of The New Testament: Its Origin, Significance & Development, 1997, Clarendon Press, Oxford, pp. 307-309.

The twelve minor Prophets are omitted. Paul is mentioned but his epistles are not listed.

Eusebius: B. M. Metzger, The Canon Of The New Testament: Its Origin, Significance & Development, 1997, Clarendon Press, Oxford, pp. 309-310.

Cyril of Jerusalem: (c. 350 CE). G. M. Hahneman, The Muratorian Fragment And The Development Of The Canon, 1992, Clarendon Press: Oxford, pp. 78-79; L. M. McDonald and J. A. Sanders (ed.), The Canon Debate, 2002, Hendrickson Publishers, Inc.: Peabody (MA), see Appendix C and Appendix D; B. M. Metzger, The Canon Of The New Testament: Its Origin, Significance & Development, 1997, Clarendon Press, Oxford, p. 311.

Codex Claromontanus: (c. 350 CE). B. M. Metzger, The Canon Of The New Testament: Its Origin, Significance & Development, 1997, Clarendon Press, Oxford, pp. 310-311; L. M. McDonald and J. A. Sanders (ed.), The Canon Debate, 2002, Hendrickson Publishers, Inc.: Peabody (MA), see Appendix D.

More details are available here. It does not have Hebrews, neither does it have Philippians and 1 and 2 Thessalonians. Scholars have supposed that these four books dropped out by an error of transcription, the scribe's eye jumping from the end of the word ephesious (Ephesians) to the end of ebraious (Hebrews).

Codex Sinaiticus: (c. 350 CE). G. M. Hahneman, The Muratorian Fragment And The Development Of The Canon, 1992, Clarendon Press: Oxford, p. 82; L. M. McDonald and J. A. Sanders (ed.), The Canon Debate, 2002, Hendrickson Publishers, Inc.: Peabody (MA), see Appendix C and Appendix D.

The sequence of the books of the Old Testament is: Genesis (incomplete).... Numbers (incomplete).... 1 Chronicles (incomplete).... 2 Esdras (incomplete), Esther, Tobit, Judith (incomplete), I Maccabees [II and III Maccabees missing], IV Maccabees, Isaiah, Jeremiah, Lamentations (incomplete), Joel, Obadiah, Jonah, Nahum, Habakkuk, Zephaniah, Haggai, Zechariah, Malachi, Pslams, Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Song of Songs, Wisdom of Solomon, Wisdom of Jesus b. Sirach, Job.

Codex Vaticanus: (c. 350 CE). G. M. Hahneman, The Muratorian Fragment And The Development Of The Canon, 1992, Clarendon Press: Oxford, p. 82; L. M. McDonald and J. A. Sanders (ed.), The Canon Debate, 2002, Hendrickson Publishers, Inc.: Peabody (MA), see Appendix C and Appendix D.

The Book of Psalms is incomplete. Pastoral Epistles and Revelation are absent.

Hilary of Poitiers: (c. 360 CE). L. M. McDonald and J. A. Sanders (ed.), The Canon Debate, 2002, Hendrickson Publishers, Inc.: Peabody (MA), see Appendix C; B. F. Westcott, A General Survey Of The History Of The Canon Of The New Testament, 1896, Seventh Edition, Macmillan & Co. Ltd., London, pp. 584-585. The text is in Latin.

The listing of New Testament books is absent.

Cheltenham Canon: (c. 360 CE). B. M. Metzger, The Canon Of The New Testament: Its Origin, Significance & Development, 1997, Clarendon Press, Oxford, pp. 311-312.

More details are available here. From a list contained in a tenth-century Latin manuscript of miscellaneous content (chiefly patristic) that once belonged to the library of Thomas Phillipps at Cheltenham, England; it was identified in 1886 by Theodor Mommsen. Hebrew, Jude and James are absent in the New Testament.

Canon of Synod of Laodicea: (c. 363 CE). L. M. McDonald, The Formation Of The Christian Biblical Canon, 1995, Hendrickson Publishers, Inc.: Peabody (MA), p. 270; L. M. McDonald and J. A. Sanders (ed.), The Canon Debate, 2002, Hendrickson Publishers, Inc.: Peabody (MA), see Appendix D; B. M. Metzger, The Canon Of The New Testament: Its Origin, Significance & Development, 1997, Clarendon Press, Oxford, p. 312.

More details are available here. Revelation of John is absent.

Athanasius: (d. 373 CE). L. M. McDonald, The Formation Of The Christian Biblical Canon, 1995, Hendrickson Publishers, Inc.: Peabody (MA), p. 274; L. M. McDonald and J. A. Sanders (ed.), The Canon Debate, 2002, Hendrickson Publishers, Inc.: Peabody (MA), see Appendix C and Appendix D; B. M. Metzger, The Canon Of The New Testament: Its Origin, Significance & Development, 1997, Clarendon Press, Oxford, pp. 312-313.

More details are available here. Bishop of Alexandria. Athanasius permitted Wisdom of Solomon, Wisdom of Sirach, Esther, Judith, Tobit, Didache and Sherperd of Hermas for catechetical reading.

Epiphanius: (c. 374-377 CE). L. M. McDonald, The Formation Of The Christian Biblical Canon, 1995, Hendrickson Publishers, Inc.: Peabody (MA), p. 275; L. M. McDonald and J. A. Sanders (ed.), The Canon Debate, 2002, Hendrickson Publishers, Inc.: Peabody (MA), see Appendix C and Appendix D; B. F. Westcott, A General Survey Of The History Of The Canon Of The New Testament, 1896, Seventh Edition, Macmillan & Co. Ltd., London, Appendix D. The text is in Greek.

Epiphanius was bishop of Salamis (isle of Cyprus) from 367 to 402. Interestingly enough, he places Wisdom of Sirach and the Wisdom of Solomon in the New Testament.

The Apostolic Constitutions: (c. 380 CE). B. M. Metzger, The Canon Of The New Testament: Its Origin, Significance & Development, 1997, Clarendon Press, Oxford, p. 313; L. M. McDonald, The Formation Of The Christian Biblical Canon, 1995, Hendrickson Publishers, Inc.: Peabody (MA), p. 275.

More details are available here. A series of eighty-five Canons attributed to the apostles was compiled in the late fourth century by the redactor of the Apostolic Constitutions, of which it forms the concluding chapter.

Gregory of Nazianzus: (d. 390 CE) Bishop of Constantinople. L. M. McDonald and J. A. Sanders (ed.), The Canon Debate, 2002, Hendrickson Publishers, Inc.: Peabody (MA), see Appendix C and Appendix D; B. M. Metzger, The Canon Of The New Testament: Its Origin, Significance & Development, 1997, Clarendon Press, Oxford, p. 313.

Jerome: (c. 394 CE) L. M. McDonald and J. A. Sanders (ed.), The Canon Debate, 2002, Hendrickson Publishers, Inc.: Peabody (MA), see Appendix C and Appendix D; B. F. Westcott, The Bible In The Church: A Popular Account Of The Collection And Reception Of The Holy Scriptures In The Christian Churches, 1879, Macmillan & Co.: London, p. 182.

Jerome permitted the use of Judith, Tobit, Maccabees, Wisdom and Ecclesiasticus for "edification of the people" but not for the confirmation of the doctrine.

Amphilochius: (d. 394 CE) Amphilocius of Iconium was Bishop of Iconium in Galatia. B. F. Westcott, A General Survey Of The History Of The Canon Of The New Testament, 1896, Seventh Edition, Macmillan & Co. Ltd., London, pp. 453-454; B. M. Metzger, The Canon Of The New Testament: Its Origin, Significance & Development, 1997, Clarendon Press, Oxford, pp. 313-314; L. M. McDonald and J. A. Sanders (ed.), The Canon Debate, 2002, Hendrickson Publishers, Inc.: Peabody (MA), see Appendix C and Appendix D.

Amphilochius' canon perhaps reflects the raging disputes about the books of the New Testament during his time. His Old Testament canon is that of Gregory of Nazianzus except that he adds "some add Esther."

Augustine: (395 CE; Hippo Regius, North Africa) L. M. McDonald and J. A. Sanders (ed.), The Canon Debate, 2002, Hendrickson Publishers, Inc.: Peabody (MA), see Appendix C and Appendix D.

Canon of Third Council of Carthage: (c. 397 CE). L. M. McDonald and J. A. Sanders (ed.), The Canon Debate, 2002, Hendrickson Publishers, Inc.: Peabody (MA), see Appendix C and Appendix D; B. M. Metzger, The Canon Of The New Testament: Its Origin, Significance & Development, 1997, Clarendon Press, Oxford, pp. 314-315.

More details are available here. Revelation was added in 419 CE at the subsequent synod at Carthage. It was absent in 397 CE.

Philastrius: (c. 397 CE). B. F. Westcott, The Bible In The Church: A Popular Account Of The Collection And Reception Of The Holy Scriptures In The Christian Churches, 1879, Macmillan & Co.: London, p. 178.

Philastrius was the Bishop of Brescia. In his canon there is no mention of Epistle to the Hebrews and Apocalypse though he mentions that the Epistle to the Hebrews was read sometimes in Churches. As for the Epistle to the Laodiceans, he says that it was read privately by some but not read in the Church. As far as the Old Testament was concerned, Philastrius quotes Wisdom of Solomon and says that it was the work of a Prophet.

Didymus The Blind: (c. 398 CE). B. D. Ehrman, "The New Testament Canon Of Didymus The Blind", Vigiliae Christianae, 1983, Volume 37, pp. 1-21; B. M. Metzger, The Canon Of The New Testament: Its Origin, Significance & Development, 1997, Clarendon Press: Oxford, pp. 213-214.

A celebrated head of the catechetical school at Alexandria. He became blind at the age of 4. Ehrman says that Didymus considers Didache, Shepherd of Hermas, Epistle of Barnabas and I Clement as authoritative and canonical. His position on II Clement is not known. Didymus' citations come from all the books of the New Testament except Philemon, II John, and III John. As for the Old Testament, his commentaries on Genesis, Job, Psalms, Ecclesiastes and Zechariah have survived. The extant of his Old Testament canon is unclear.

Doctrine of Addai: (c. 400 CE). G. Howard (Trans.), The Teaching Of Addai, 1981, Scholars Press: Atlanta, p. 93; B. M. Metzger, The Canon Of The New Testament: Its Origin, Significance & Development, 1997, Clarendon Press: Oxford, pp. 113-114. The doctrine states (after Howard):

But as for the Law and the Prophets and the Gospel, which you read daily before the people, and the Letters of Paul, which Simon Peter send to us from the city of Rome, and the Acts of the Twelve Apostles, which John the son of Zebedee sent to us from the Ephesus, read these books in the churches of the Messiah. Do not again read with any of these any other since no longer is there any other in which the truth you possess is written, except these books which hold in that faith to which you have been called.

This is the earliest New Testament of Syriac Church. Also notice the Old Testament appears to be "the Law and the Prophets". The "Gospel" here refers to Tatian's Diatessaron.

Peshitta: (c. 400 CE). The Old Testament In Syriac: According To The Peshitta Version, 1972- , Edited on behalf of the International Organization for the Study of the Old Testament by the Peshitta Institute, E.J. Brill: Leiden.; B. M. Metzger, The Canon Of The New Testament: Its Origin, Significance & Development, 1997, Clarendon Press: Oxford, p. 219.

Codex Alexandrinus: G. M. Hahneman, The Muratorian Fragment And The Development Of The Canon, 1992, Clarendon Press: Oxford, p. 82; L. M. McDonald and J. A. Sanders (ed.), The Canon Debate, 2002, Hendrickson Publishers, Inc.: Peabody (MA), see Appendix C and Appendix D.

Letter of Innocent I: B. F. Westcott, A General Survey Of The History Of The Canon Of The New Testament, 1896, Seventh Edition, Macmillan & Co. Ltd., London, Appendix D, pp. 581-582. The text is in Latin.

Innocent I was a bishop of Rome. His canon list appeaeds in a letter to the Bishop of Toulouse. The letter does not explicitly mention 4 Gospels that have been accepted but it is assumed that they are Matthew, Mark, Luke and John. The rejected books of Matthias, James the Less, Andrew and Thomas are not named.

Chrysostom: (d. 407 CE). B. F. Westcott, The Bible In The Church: A Popular Account Of The Collection And Reception Of The Holy Scriptures In The Christian Churches, 1879, Macmillan & Co.: London, p. 174; B. F. Westcott, A General Survey Of The History Of The Canon Of The New Testament, 1896, Seventh Edition, Macmillan & Co. Ltd., London, pp. 449-450.

Chrysostom was first a presbyter of Antioch and afterwards patriarch of Constantinople. He is said to have been the first writer who the name the collection of books "The Bible". His New Testament canon closely follows Peshitta.

Rufinus: (d. 410 CE). L. M. McDonald and J. A. Sanders (ed.), The Canon Debate, 2002, Hendrickson Publishers, Inc.: Peabody (MA), see Appendix C and Appendix D; B. F. Westcott, A General Survey Of The History Of The Canon Of The New Testament, 1896, Seventh Edition, Macmillan & Co. Ltd., London, Appendix D. The text is in Latin.

Rufinus says: "With the New Testament there is the little book which is called the Shepherd of Hermas, and that which is called The Two Ways and the Judgment of Peter." The book called 'The Two Ways' is probably refering to a section in Epistle of Barnabas.

Codex Washingtoniasus: W. H. P. Hatch, The Principal Uncial Manuscripts Of The New Testament, 1939, The University of Chicago Press, Chicago, Plate XXI.

Theodoret: (c. 458 CE). B. F. Westcott, A General Survey Of The History Of The Canon Of The New Testament, 1896, Seventh Edition, Macmillan & Co. Ltd., London, p. 451.

Theodoret was a native of Antioch and Bishop of Cyrus in Syria. He used the same books as Chrysostom and he does not mention the four disputed Epistles or the Apocalypse.

Decree of Gelsius: B. F. Westcott, A General Survey Of The History Of The Canon Of The New Testament, 1896, Seventh Edition, Macmillan & Co. Ltd., London, Appendix D, pp. 582-584. The text is in Latin.

The Decree of Gelasius is attributed to Gelasius, bishop of Rome from 492 to 496 CE. It is believe to have been promulgated by him as president of a council of 70 bishops in Rome. There is a scholarly dispute about the authenticity of this decree. See the above reference, p. 461 note 5. Shepherd of Hermas and Revelation of Peter is rejected.

The Greek Orthodox Church: B. M. Metzger & M. D. Coogan (Ed.), Oxford Companion To The Bible, 1993, Oxford University Press, Oxford & New York, pp. 79 (Under 'Bible'); L. M. McDonald and J. A. Sanders (ed.), The Canon Debate, 2002, Hendrickson Publishers, Inc.: Peabody (MA), see Appendix C.

The Bible of the Greek Orthodox church comprises all of the books accepted by the Roman Catholic church, plus I Esdras, the Prayer of Manasseh, Psalm 151, and 3 Maccabees. The Slavonic canon adds 2 Esdras, but designates I and 2 Esdras as 2 and 3 Esdras. Other Eastern churches have 4 Maccabees as well.

Junilius: (c. d. 550 CE). B. F. Westcott, The Bible In The Church: A Popular Account Of The Collection And Reception Of The Holy Scriptures In The Christian Churches, 1879, Macmillan & Co.: London, pp. 193-194; B. F. Westcott, A General Survey Of The History Of The Canon Of The New Testament, 1896, Seventh Edition, Macmillan & Co. Ltd., London, p. 451.

Junilius was an African Bishop of sixth century. He has given a full and accurate account of doctrine on holy scripture taught in the schools of Nisbis in Syria. Junilius distinguishes books as "complete" and "intermediate" authority. In doing so he follows a remarakable tradition. He divides the books of Bible into books of history, prophecy, proverbs and simple doctrine. Interestingly enough, in history he reckons that Chronicles (2), Job, Ezra (2), Judith, Esther and Maccabees (2) as of "intermediate" authority! According to his these books are not included in the canonical scriptures because they were received among "Hebrews" (i.e., the Jews) only in a secondary rank.

Cassiodorus (or Cassiodorius): (c. 560 CE). B. F. Westcott, The Bible In The Church: A Popular Account Of The Collection And Reception Of The Holy Scriptures In The Christian Churches, 1879, Macmillan & Co.: London, pp. 197; B. F. Westcott, A General Survey Of The History Of The Canon Of The New Testament, 1896, Seventh Edition, Macmillan & Co. Ltd., London, p. 462.

Cassiodorus was the chief minister of Theodoric. He gives three catalogues of the sciprtures, a) according to Jerome, b) according to Augustine, and c) according to the old translation and the Septuagint. In the last of the three, he omits the two shorter Epistles of John. Although Cassiodorus records these wide difference of opinion both in the Old and the New Testaments, he does not dwell upon them for a moment. The question of canon for him was an open question, and he nowhere indocates that it had been made the subject of any final and binding decision at Rome.

We have mentioned his canon according to Augustine.

Leontius of Byzantium: (c. 620 CE). B. F. Westcott, The Bible In The Church: A Popular Account Of The Collection And Reception Of The Holy Scriptures In The Christian Churches, 1879, Macmillan & Co.: London, pp. 219-220; B. F. Westcott, A General Survey Of The History Of The Canon Of The New Testament, 1896, Seventh Edition, Macmillan & Co. Ltd., London, p. 458. The list of books in Leontius' canon in Greek is on p. 568.

Leontius says "Of the Old Testament there are twenty two books... The historical books are twelve... The first five, called the Pentateuch, are according to universal testimony the books of Moses: those which follow are by unknown authors, namely Joshua... Judges... Ruth... Kings (in two books)... Chronicles... Ezra... The prophetic books are five, Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, Daniel, the twelve prophets... The didactic books are four, Job, which some thought to be the composition of Josephus(?), Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Canticles... These are three books of Solomon's. The Psalter follows. [In these] you have the books of the Old Scripture".

Isidore of Seville (also called Isidorus): (c. 636 CE). B. F. Westcott, A General Survey Of The History Of The Canon Of The New Testament, 1896, Seventh Edition, Macmillan & Co. Ltd., London, p. 463. The list of books in Isidore's canon in Latin is on pp. 585-586.

The status of the book of Baruch is unclear.

Babylonian Talmud: B. F. Westcott, The Bible In The Church: A Popular Account Of The Collection And Reception Of The Holy Scriptures In The Christian Churches, 1879, Macmillan & Co.: London, pp. 35-38.

The final redaction of Babylonian Talmud is post-Islamic.

John of Damascus: The last writer of Syrian Church and a well-known anti-Islamic polemicist. B. F. Westcott, A General Survey Of The History Of The Canon Of The New Testament, 1896, Seventh Edition, Macmillan & Co. Ltd., London, Appendix D, pp. 554-555.

John of Damascus' excerpts from his Exposition of the Orthodox Faith are provided in Greek by Westcott. III and IV Esdras are counted as one by John of Damascus. Concerning Wisdom of Solomon and Wisdom of Jesus ben Sirach, he says that they "are virtuous and noble, but are not counted nor were they placed in the ark."

The Stichometry of Nicephorus: (c. 828 CE). B. F. Westcott, The Bible In The Church: A Popular Account Of The Collection And Reception Of The Holy Scriptures In The Christian Churches, 1879, Macmillan & Co.: London, pp. 225-226; B. F. Westcott, A General Survey Of The History Of The Canon Of The New Testament, 1896, Seventh Edition, Macmillan & Co. Ltd., London, p. 458.

A list of scriptures is found in a short compendium of history (chronographia) compiled by Nicephorus, patriarch of Constantinople, in which it occurs after the list of the patriarchs of Antioch. To the title of each book is added the number of lines (stichoi) which it contained according to the ancient mode of writing. From this circumstance the list is known as the Stichometry of Nicephorus. Westcott is of the opinion that this work must have been as early as 4th century CE.

Anastasius: (c. 880 CE). B. F. Westcott, The Bible In The Church: A Popular Account Of The Collection And Reception Of The Holy Scriptures In The Christian Churches, 1879, Macmillan & Co.: London, p. 198.

Anastasius was the "librarian" of the Roman Church, gave without question or comment the remarkable list of the books of holy scripture which it contains. Esther is omitted and so is "apocrypha". In the New Testament, the Book of Apocalypse is absent.

Alfric: (c. 1006 CE). B. F. Westcott, The Bible In The Church: A Popular Account Of The Collection And Reception Of The Holy Scriptures In The Christian Churches, 1879, Macmillan & Co.: London, pp. 208-209; B. F. Westcott, A General Survey Of The History Of The Canon Of The New Testament, 1896, Seventh Edition, Macmillan & Co. Ltd., London, pp. 464-466.

Alfric was the Abbot of Cerne and later on he became the Archbishop of Canterbury. The highlight of his list is the presence of Epistle to Laodiceans in the New Testament.

Hugo of St. Victor: (c. 1140 CE). B. F. Westcott, The Bible In The Church: A Popular Account Of The Collection And Reception Of The Holy Scriptures In The Christian Churches, 1879, Macmillan & Co.: London, pp. 204-205; B. F. Westcott, A General Survey Of The History Of The Canon Of The New Testament, 1896, Seventh Edition, Macmillan & Co. Ltd., London, pp. 470-471.

According to Hugo of St. Victor, the "apocrypha" of the Old Testament and the patristic writing that once were considered as "scripture" are flowing from the body of literature which he considered as "canon".

Alexius Aristenus: (c. 1165 CE). B. F. Westcott, The Bible In The Church: A Popular Account Of The Collection And Reception Of The Holy Scriptures In The Christian Churches, 1879, Macmillan & Co.: London, p. 224.

Alexius Aristenus was a distinguished ecclesiastical officer of Constantinople. His Old Testamant list has three Books of Maccabees and his New Testament has the Apostolic Constitutions. He places Wisdom and Ecclesiasticus in the appendix of his canon.

John of Salisbury: (c. 1165-6 CE). B. F. Westcott, The Bible In The Church: A Popular Account Of The Collection And Reception Of The Holy Scriptures In The Christian Churches, 1879, Macmillan & Co.: London, pp. 210-211; B. F. Westcott, A General Survey Of The History Of The Canon Of The New Testament, 1896, Seventh Edition, Macmillan & Co. Ltd., London, pp. 472-474. The Latin text is on pp. 587-588.

The highlight of John of Salisbury's list is the presence of the Epistle to Laodiceans in the New Testament.

The Ethiopic Church: The Biblical Canon Of The Ethiopic Orthodox Church Today, R. W. Cowley, Ostkirchliche Studien, 1974, Volume 23, pp. 318-323.

This Church has the largest Bible of all, and and distinguishes different canons, the "narrower" and the "broader" according to the extent of the New Testament. The Ethiopic Old Testament comprises the books of the Hebrew Bible as well as all of the deuterocanonical books listed above, along with Jubilees, I Enoch, and Joseph ben Gorion's (Josippon's) medieval history of the Jews and other nations. The New Testament in what is referred to as the "broader" canon is made up of thirty-five books, joining to the usual twenty-seven books eight additional texts, namely four sections of church order from a compilation called Sinodos, two sections from the Ethiopic Book of the Covenant, Ethiopic Clement, and Ethiopic Didascalia. When the "narrower" New Testament canon is followed, it is made up of only the familiar twenty-seven books, but then the Old Testament books are divided differently so that they make up 54 books instead of 46. In both the narrower and broader canon, the total number of books comes to 81. The Bible is written in Ge‘ez.

Ebed Jesu: (d. 1318 CE). B. F. Westcott, The Bible In The Church: A Popular Account Of The Collection And Reception Of The Holy Scriptures In The Christian Churches, 1879, Macmillan & Co.: London, pp. 231-232; B. F. Westcott, A General Survey Of The History Of The Canon Of The New Testament, 1896, Seventh Edition, Macmillan & Co. Ltd., London, pp. 555-558. These pages have the Latin text of Ebed Jesu's canon.

Ebed Jesu was a Nestorian Bishop of Nisbis. His Old Testament canon is much larger than what has been depicted above. It contains the Book of the tradition of Elders (i.e., the Mishnah), the Book of Asenath the wife of Joseph the Just, son of Jacob, the Book of Herod the King and the Book of the last destruction of Jerusalem by Titus.

The Wycliffe's Bible: S. L. Frietedt, The Wycliffe Bible - Part I - The Principal Problems Connected With Forshall And Madden's Edition, 1953, Almqvist & Wiksells Boktryckeri - A. B.: Stockholm.

The Gutenberg Bible: Perhaps the first printed Bible (Latin Vulgate). Facsimile Edition Of The Gutenberg Bible, 1961, Pageant Books: Paterson, N.J.

The original was printed in Mainz by Johann Gutenberg, completed not later than Aug. 1456 (perhaps 1455). The facsimile reproduction derives from the Insel Verlag edition which was based on the copy in the Koniglichen Bibliothek in Berlin and the copy in the Standischen Landesbibliothek in Fulda. This Bible is poorly indexed, but beautifully decorated.

The Earliest Low German Bible: Bible, 1480, H. Quentell: Cologne.

The earliest Low German Bible. This edition is in the western dialect of Low German (resembling Dutch), with the exception of the Psalter, which, according to Wilhelm Walther (1846-1924), exhibits the dialect of Cologne. Among the sources of this particular version may be mentioned the Dutch "Bible" of 1477 and the fifth High German Bible. The Song of Solomon is not translated, but is given in Latin.

Soncino's Tanakh: Tanakh, Published: 11 Iyar 5248, 22 April 1488, Joshua Soncino, Corrected by Abraham ben Hayyim di Tintori.

The first printed edition of Tanakh in Hebrew.

The Complutensian Polyglot: Old Testament title: Vetus testament´u multiplici lingua n´uc primo impressum: et imprimis Pentateuchus Hebraico Greco atqz Chaldaico idiomate. Adi´ucta unicuiqz sua Latina interpretatione; New Testament title: Novum Testamentum Grece et Latine in Academia Complutensi noviter impressum. Vocabularium Hebraicum atque Chaldaicum totius Veteris Testamenti cum alijs tractatibus prout infra in prefatione continetur in Academia Complutensi noviter impressum, 1514-1517, Industria Arnaldi Guilielmi de Brocario in Academia Complutensi: Alcalà de Henares.

The Complutensian Bible, the earliest of the polyglots known also as the Spanish or Ximenes' Polyglot. It was edited by a team of scholars headed by Diego Lopez de Zuniga, including Alfonso de Zamora, Pablo Coronel, Alfonso de Alcala and others under the patronage of Cardinal Ximenes. It was probably begun in 1502 and was printed between the years 1514 and 1517 but did not obtain Papal authorization until 1522. Text based on a selection of manuscripts acquired by Cardinal Ximenes for the purpose and some loaned by Pope Leo X from the Vatican. Contents: Vol. 1: Pentateuch, 1520; Vol. 2: Joshua-2 Paralipomenon, with Oratio Manasses; Vol. 3: Esdras-Ecclesiasticus; Vol. 4: Isaiah- 3 Maccabees, 1517; Vol. 5: New Testament, 1514; Vol. 6: Vocabularium hebraicum, 1515.

Cardinal Ximenes considered the "apocrypha" to be edifiying and was read in the Church. This is reason why the "apocrypha" of the Old Testament is also printed in the Complutensian Polyglot.

Karlstadt: (d. 1541 CE). B. F. Westcott, The Bible In The Church: A Popular Account Of The Collection And Reception Of The Holy Scriptures In The Christian Churches, 1879, Macmillan & Co.: London, pp. 266-268; B. F. Westcott, A General Survey Of The History Of The Canon Of The New Testament, 1896, Seventh Edition, Macmillan & Co. Ltd., London, pp. 493-494.

Andrew Bodenstein of Karlstadt (Carlstadt), who is commonly known by the name of his native town, Arch-deacon of Wittenberg. He was a early friend of Luther and one of the early reformers. In 1520 CE, he published a treatise called On The Canonical Scriptures (De Canonicis Scripturis) where the issue of biblical canon is discussed. He omits the Book of Acts in his list. This could be due to him looking at this book as an appendix to Luke's Gospel.

The Tyndale's Bible: Rev. J. I. Mombert, William Tyndale's Five Books Of Moses Called The Pentateuch: Being A Verbatim Reprint Of The Edition M.CCCCC.XXX, 1884, Anson D. F. Randolph & Co: New York; G. Offor, The New Testament Of Our Lord & Saviour Jesus Christ Published in 1526. Being The First Translation From The Greek To English By That Eminent Scholar & Martyr William Tyndale, 1836, Samuel Bagster: London.

The Pagninus' Bible: A Latin Bible. Biblia: Habes in hoc libro prudens lector vtriusq[ue] instrumenti nouam tranlationøe [sic] æditam à ... Sancte pagnino ... necnon & librum de interpretamentis hebraicorum, arameorøu, græcorumq[ue] nominum ... Habes & in libri fronte eiusdem epitomøen .i. abbreuiationem ltbrorum [sic, i.e. librorum] historialium veteris instrumenti, & erratorum castigationes ... duas Ioannis Francisci Pici mirandulæ ... epistulas ... epistolam translatoris ad Clementem septimum ... & proëmium, 1528, Impressa ... Lugduni: per Antonium du Ry ... impensis Francisci Turchi, & Dominici Berticinium [i.e. Berti ciuium] Lucøesium, & Iacobi de Giuntis ..., Anno døni .1.5.2.7. die uero .xxix. Ianuarij [old style, i.e. 29 Jan. 1528].

The earliest Latin version of the Bible, in modern times, made from the original Hebrew and Greek. Translated by Sanctes Pagninus. It appears that Pagninus began his translation about the year 1493, and completed it before 1520. This Bible is the earliest edition in which the text is divided into numbered verses; but the system here adopted in the apocrypha and the New Testament is entirely different from that introduced in later Bibles. The apocrypha here, for the first time in a printed Latin Bible, form a separate section towards the end of the Old Testament.

Johannes Oecolampadius: (c. 1530 CE). B. F. Westcott, The Bible In The Church: A Popular Account Of The Collection And Reception Of The Holy Scriptures In The Christian Churches, 1879, Macmillan & Co.: London, p. 270.

A German Protestant reformer, and an associate of Huldreich Zwingli in the Reformation in Switzerland. He says that "We do not despise Judith, Tobit, Baruch, the last two books of Esdras, the three books of Maccabees, the last two chapters of Daniel, but we do not allow them Divine authority equally with those others (i.e. of the Hebrew Canon)." He also adds that "In the New Testament... we do not compare the Apocalypse, the Epistales of James, and Jude, and 2 Peter and 2, 3 John with the rest."

The Coverdale Bible: M. Coverdale, Biblia, The Byble: That Is The Holy Scrypture Of The Olde and New Testament, Faythfully Translated Into Englyshe, 1535, E. Cervicornus & J. Soter: Cologne? or Marburg?.

The "editio princeps" of the printed English Bible. Translated by Miles Coverdale (1488-1568), a Yorkshireman educated at Cambridge, who spent many years on the Continent. Consecrated Bishop of Exeter, 1551, he was deprived in 1553, and after further exile ended his days in London. The apocrypha is listed at the end of the Old Testament. Curiously enough, Baruch and Epistle of Jeremiah are not put in "apocrypha" and instead Coverdale says "Vnto these also belongeth Baruc, whom we have set amonge the prophets next vnto jeremy, because he was his scrybe, and in his time."

The Luther Bible: Dr. Martin Luther, Biblia, 1538, Wolff K: Strassburg.

A German translation. An interesting feature of this Bible is printing of apocrypha towards the end of the Old Testament. Luther also disputed the authenticity of Hebrews, James, Jude and Revelation. They are printed towards the end of the New Testament.

The Great Bible: The Byble In Englyshe, That Is To Saye The Content Of All The Holy Scrypture, Bothe Of Ye Olde And Newe Testament, Truly Translated After The Veryte Of The Hebrue And Greke Textes, By Ye Dylygent Studye Of Dyuerie Excellent Learned Men, Expert In The Forsayde Tonges, 1539, Published by Rychard Grafton and Edward Whitchurch.

The "Great Bible" is a revision by Coverdale of the so-called "Matthew" Bible. Also called "Cromwell's Bible" and "Cranmer's Bible".

The Council Of Trent: It was held on the eighth day of the month of April, in the year 1546. B. F. Westcott, A General Survey Of The History Of The Canon Of The New Testament, 1896, Seventh Edition, Macmillan & Co. Ltd., London, Appendix D, p. 590. The text is in Latin.

Years of dispute and the rise of Protestant sect of Christianity led the Roman Catholics to fix their canon in 1546. Notable is the absence of III , IV Esdras and Prayer of Manasseh in this decree.

The Louvain Bible: La Saincte Bible: nouuellement translatée de Latin en Francois, selon l'edition Latine, dernierement imprimée à Louuain : reueuë, corrigée, & approuuée par gens sçauants, à ce deputez. A chascun chapitre sont adiouxtez les Sommaires, contenants la matiere du dict chapitre, les Concordances, & aucunes apostilles aux marges, 1550, Par Bartholomy de Graue, Anthoine Marie Bergagne, & Iehan de Vvaen: Louuain.

The Louvain Bible is a revision of Le Fèvre's version, made by members of the theological faculty of Louvain, and issued with their authority. In some places, it is said, this Louvain recension shows traces of the influence of Olivetan's version. The names of Nicolas de Leuze and François de Larben are mentioned as having been employed in the revision; and the whole was approved by Pierre Curtius. The full imprint runs: "A Louuain, Par Bartholomy de Graue: Antoine Marie Bergagne: & Iehan de Vvaen. M.D.L. Au moys de Septembre. Auec Grace & Priuilege de la M. Imperiale." The latter part refers to the privilege granted by Charles V. to B. de Grave, who also printed Bibles in Latin and in Dutch.

The Stephanus' Bible: R. Stephanus, Biblia: R. Stephanus lectori. En tibi Biblioru vulgata editio, in qua iuxta Hebraicorum versuum rationem singula capita versibus distincta sunt, numeris præfixis qui versuum numeris quos in concordantiis nostris ... addidimus, respondent, 1555, Oliua Roberti Stephani: Geneva. R. Stephanus' third octavo edition, the text in which follows the folio editions of 1538-40 and 1546.

This is generally considered to be the earliest Latin Bible to exhibit R. Stephanus' division of the text into numbered verses; the text, however, is not broken up, but printed in solid columns. In the Old Testament books of the Hebrew Canon, R. Stephanus adopted the already existing system of verse-division, and merely added numbers to the verses.

The French Confession: (1559 CE). B. F. Westcott, The Bible In The Church: A Popular Account Of The Collection And Reception Of The Holy Scriptures In The Christian Churches, 1879, Macmillan & Co.: London, pp. 276-277; B. F. Westcott, A General Survey Of The History Of The Canon Of The New Testament, 1896, Seventh Edition, Macmillan & Co. Ltd., London, p. 501.

See it online.

The Beza Edition: Théodore de Bèze, Tes Kaines Diathekes hapanta = Nouum D.N. Iesu Christi Testamentum: a Theodoro beza versum, ad veritatem Græci sermonis è regione appositi: cum eiusdem annotationibus, in quibus ratio interpretationis redditur. Aditi [sic] sunt indices tres: quorum primus res & sententias præcipuas Noui Testamenti complectitur: secundus res & sententias quæ in annotationibus explicantur: tertius verba & phrases Græcas, 1560, Impensis Nicolai Barbirii & Thomæ Courteau.

Sometimes styled the first of Beza's editions of the Greek Testament; but only the Latin translation and annotations in this book can rightly be assigned to Beza, whose series of Greek editions began in 1565. Another issue of this edition, otherwise identical, is dated 1559; a third issue (with the text identical but the indexes from a different typesetting) has imprint: Tiguri, 1559.

The Geneva Bible: Translated by William Whittingham, Anthony Gilby, Thomas Sampson, and perhaps others, at Geneva. The Bible And Holy Scriptures Conteyned In The Olde And Newe Testament, Translated According To The Ebrue And Greke, And Conferred With The Best Translations In Diuers Langages, With Moste Profitable Annotations Vpon All The Hard Places, And Other Things Of Great Importance As May Appeare In The Epistle To The Reader, 1560, At Geneva : Printed by Rouland Hall.

The Bible of Puritans. The first edition of the so-called "Geneva version"; the earliest English Bible printed in roman type with verse divisions. The Geneva Bible of 1560 and its later editions are often called by the somewhat absurd title of "Breeches" Bibles. The New Testament is a careful revision of Whittingham's Testament of 1557 (q.v.), due to a further comparison with Beza's Latin translation. The Old Testament and Apocrypha are based mainly on the "Great Bible", corrected from the original Hebrew and Greek, and compared with the Latin versions of Leo Juda and others. Unlike the "Great Bible", the apocrypha in the "Geneva Bible" are printed in the end of the Old Testament.

The Belgian Confession: (1561-1563). B. F. Westcott, The Bible In The Church: A Popular Account Of The Collection And Reception Of The Holy Scriptures In The Christian Churches, 1879, Macmillan & Co.: London, pp. 275-277; B. F. Westcott, A General Survey Of The History Of The Canon Of The New Testament, 1896, Seventh Edition, Macmillan & Co. Ltd., London, pp. 500-501.

The oldest of the doctrinal standards of the Christian Reformed Church is the Confession of Faith, popularly known as the Belgic Confession, following the seventeenth-century Latin designation "Confessio Belgica." "Belgica" referred to the whole of the Netherlands, both north and south, which today is divided into the Netherlands and Belgium. The confession's chief author was Guido de Bräs, a preacher of the Reformed churches of the Netherlands, who died a martyr to the faith in the year 1567.

According to the Belgian Confession, "the church may certainly read these [apocryphal] books and learn from them as far as they agree with the canonical books. But they do not have such power and virtue that one could confirm from their testimony any point of faith or of the Christian religion. Much less can they detract from the authority of the other holy books."

John Calvin: (d. 1564 CE). B. F. Westcott, The Bible In The Church: A Popular Account Of The Collection And Reception Of The Holy Scriptures In The Christian Churches, 1879, Macmillan & Co.: London, pp. 270-273; B. F. Westcott, A General Survey Of The History Of The Canon Of The New Testament, 1896, Seventh Edition, Macmillan & Co. Ltd., London, pp. 496-498.

Calvin emerged as one of the most important figures of the Reformation. His ideas elicited a wave of anti-Protestant sentiment that forced him to flee for his own safety. He finally settled in Geneva. The primary tenets of Calvinism include a belief in the primacy of the scripture as an authority for doctrinal decisions, a belief in predestination, a belief in salvation wholly accomplished by grace with no influence from works, and a rejection of the episcopacy.

Emden Bible (New Edition): A Dutch Bible. Biblia dat is, de gantsche Heylighe Schrift, grondelic ende trouwelick verduydtschet. Met verclaringhe dusterer woorden, redenen ende spreucken, ende verscheyden Lectien, die in andere loflicke Ouersettinghen gheuonden, ende hier aen de cant toe ghesettet zijn. Met noch rijcke aenwijsingen, der gelijck ofte ongelijckstemmenden plaetsen, op het aldergewiste met sheydtletteren, ende versenghetale (daer een yeghelick Capittel in Hebreischer wijse, mede onderdeylt is) verteeckent, 1572, Dort : Jan Canin.

A new edition of the Emden Bible of 1562. Published at the beginning of the revolt under William, Prince of Orange. The first Bible whose sale was authorized by the United Provinces of the Netherlands. The general title is dated 1571; the New Testament title is dated 1572. The apocrypha is listed in the end.

39 Articles of Church of England: Details of this article can be found here.

The Articles of 1571 given in English and Latin, the assent of which is still required of clergy in the Church of England. They form the basis of the Articles of the Protestant Episcopal Church of America and the Twenty-five Articles of the Methodist Church.

Bishops' Bible: M. Parker, The Holy Byble: Conteynyng The Olde And Newe Testament. Set Foorth By Aucthoritie, 1575, Imprinted at London by Newgate Market, next vnto Christes Churche, by Richarde Iugge.

A revision of the "Great Bible" version, undertaken by Matthew Parker (1504-1575), Archbishop of Canterbury, with the assistance of many bishops and well-known Biblical scholars.

The Canin's Bible (Reprint): A Dutch Bible. J. Canin, Biblia: dat is, De gantsche heylighe Schrift, grondelick ende trouvvelick verduytschet. Met verclaringhe duysterer woorden, redenen ende spreucken, ende verscheyden lectien, die in ander loflicke Oversettinghen ghevonden, ende hier aen de cant toe-ghesettet zijn. Met noch rijcke aenwijsinghen, der ghelijck ofte onghelijcstemmenden plaetsen, op het alder ghewiste, met Scheyt-letteren ende Versen ghetale (daer een yeghelick Capittel nae Hebreyscher wijse, mede onderdeylt is) verteeckent, 1599, Leyden : by Ian Paedts Iacobszoon, ende Ian Bouwenszoon.

A reprint of J. Canin's Bible of 1571-2 (Darlow & Moule, 3298). It is very similar to the edition of 1589. The preliminary pages contain the same matter as in the 1589 edition. The apocrypha is listed in the end.

Tremellius & Junius' Version: Immanuele Tremellio & Francisco Junio, Testamenti Veteris Biblia sacra, sive, Libri canonici, priscæ Judæorum Ecclesiæ a Deo traditi : Latini recens ex Hebræo facti, brevibúsq[ue] scholiis illustrati ab Immanuele Tremellio, & Francisco Junio. Accesserunt libri qui vulgo dicuntur apocryphi, Latinè redditi, & notis quibusdam aucti à Francisco Junio. Multò omnes quàm antè emendatiùs editi & aucti locis innumeris: quibus etiam adjunximus Novi Testamenti libros ex sermone Syro ab eodem Tremellio, & ex Græco à Theodoro Beza in Latinum versos, notis´que itidem illustratos / quarta cura Francisci Junii ante obitum. Cum indice ad notas V.T. triplice, 1603, Typis Wechelianis, apud Claudium Marnium, & hæredum Joannis Aubrii: Hanoviæ.

Tremellius and Junius' version of the Bible [including Tremellius' translation of the New Testament from the Syriac], with the addition of Beza's translation of the New Testament. This edition, which professes to be the 'fourth' supervised by F. Junius before his death (in 1602), very closely resembles the 'third', issued by the same publishers in 1596. The Bible text is divided into verses. It includes prefaces to many books, chapter summaries, extensive notes mainly in the margins and at foot of page. In the New Testament the versions of Beza and of Tremellius are printed in parallel columns on each page. Each part includes a dedicatory preface. The apocrypha is listed at the end of the Old Testament.

Batavia Version: A Dutch Bible. Biblia: dat is, De gantsche heylighe Schrift, grondelick ende trouvvelick verduytschet. Met verclaringhe duysterer woorden, redenen ende spreucken, ende verscheyden lectien, die in ander loflicke Oversettinghen ghevonden, ende hier aen de cant toe-ghesettet zijn. Met noch rijcke aenwijsinghen, der ghelijck ofte onghelijcstemmenden plaetsen, op het alder ghewiste, met Scheyt-letteren ende Versen ghetale (daer een yeghelick Capittel nae Hebreyscher wijse, mede onderdeylt is) verteeckent, 1608, Leyden: by Ian Paedts Iacobszoon, ende Ian Bouwenszoon.

The spine reads: "Batavia or Dutch Bible. 1608.". The apocrypha is listed in the end.

Duoay-Rheims Version: The first edition of the Roman Catholic version of the Old Testament in English. The Holie Bible faithfully translated into English, out of the authentical Latin, diligently conferred with the Hebrew, Greeke, and other editions in diuers languages, with arguments of the bookes, and chapters: annotations. tables: and other helpes, for better vnderstanding of the text: for discouerie of corruptions in some late translations: and for clearing controversies in religion by the English College of Doway, 1609, Printed at Doway: By Laurence Kellam, at the signe of the holie Lambe.

The first edition of the Roman Catholic version of the Old Testament in English. Vol. 1 is dated 1609 and vol. 2 is dated 1610. This version of the Old Testament was based on the same lines, and came from the same hands, as the Rheims New Testament of 1582. The complete work is commonly known as the 'Douay-Rheims version' or briefly the 'Douay Bible'. It was translated largely by Gregory Martin. The annotations and the tables, etc., are ascribed to Thomas Worthington, who became President of the College at Douay in 1599.

The preface reads 'To the right welbeloved English Reader ... ' (dated 'From the English College in Doway, the Octaues of al Sainctes. 1609) - 6ff.; 'The summe and partition of the Holie Bible. With a brife note of the Canonical and Apocryphal Bookes, The summe of the Old Testament ... ', and 'Of Moyses ... ' - 2ff.; 'The argument of the Booke of Genesis', and 'The signification of the markes here vsed ... ' - 1f. Text, Genesis - Job, pp. 1 to 1114; on p. 1115 is a short note 'To the Curteous Reader', 1p. blank. Vol. 2: title: 'The second tome of the Holie Bible ... ' etc. (as in vol. 1, but with a different text: 'Spiritu Sancto inspirati, locuti sunt sancti Dei homines. 2. Pet. 1. The holie men of God spake, inspired with the Holie Ghost', and dated M.DC.X. The rejected books include Enoch, Gospel of St. Andrew, Gospel of St. Thomas, Gospel of St. Bartholmew. Prayer of Manasseh, III Esdras, III Maccabees are listed as arpocryphal books. The status of IV Esdras and IV Maccabees is listed as 'doubtful'. III Esdras, IV Esdras and Prayer of Manasseh are printed in the end.

The Rheims New Testament also inspired non-Catholics to come up with 'refutations'. One such 'refutation' is by William Fulke, "Doctor in Diuinitie" and is called The text of the New Testament of Iesus Christ, translated out of the vulgar Latine by the papists of the traiterous seminarie at Rhemes, with arguments of bookes, chapters, and annotations, pretending to discouer the corruptions of diuers translations, and to cleare the controuersies of these dayes, whereunto is added the translation out of the original Greeke, commonly vsed in the Church of England, with a confutation of all such arguments, glosses, and annotations, as conteine manifest impietie, of heresie, treason and slander, against the catholike Church of God, and the true teachers thereof, or the translations vsed in the Church of England, 1589, Imprinted at London : by the Deputies of Christopher Barker, Printer to the Queenes most excellent Maiestie. The text of the Rheims New Testament and the Bishops' version are printed in parallel columns, the former in roman type on the left, the latter in italics on the right side of each page: both are divided into verses. All the Arguments, marginal notes, and other annotations of the Rhemish New Testament of 1582 are reprinted, interspersed with the Confutations; the origin of each paragraph being indicated in the margin - "Rhem. 1" being followed by "Fulke 1", and so on. The first systematic and comprehensive attempt to refute the arguments and accusations contained in the Rheims New Testament of 1582. This "conterblast" to Gregory Martin, by printing the Rheims Testament in full, side by side with Bishops' version, secured for the former a publicity which it would not otherwise have obtained, and was indirectly responsible for the marked influence which Rheims exerted on the Bible of 1611. It was reprinted in 1601, 1617, 1633 and 1843. This Confutation (without the New Testament) was published in New York in 1834 by Leavitt, Lord and Co.

Authorized Version (AV) Bible: Also known as KJV, an English translation. The Holy Bible Conteyning The Old Testament And The New: Newly Translated Out Of The Originall Tongues, & With The Former Translations Diligently Compared And Revised: By His Maiesties Speciall Comandment, Appointed To Be Read In Churches, 1611, Robert Barker.

The apocrypha is listed at the end of the Old Testament.

Elziver Bible: Roberti Stephani, Josephi Scaligeri, Isaaci Casauboni, Tes Kaines Diathekes hapanta = Novi Testamenti libri omnes: recens nunc editi: cum notis & animaduersionibus doctissimorum, præsertim verò, Variæ item lectiones ex antiquissimis exemplaribus, & celeberrimis bibliothecis, desumptæ, 1633, Apud Richardum Whittakerum: Londini.

The text agrees with the second Elzevir edition of 1633, except in four passages, in three of which it adopts readings found in H. Stephanus' edition of 1576.

Westminster Confession of Faith (1646): Details of Westminster Confession of Faith held in 1646 are available here.

At the beginning of the first civil war in England, the Calvinistically oriented Parliament called for an assembly of theologians to gather from across England, Wales, Ireland and neighboring Scotland to prepare a Reformed confession of faith and a uniform church government. With Parliament's call 98 British and 11 Scottish Reformed theologians and two dozen parliamentary representatives gathered at Westminster Abbey in London. Reflective of church/state relations of the era, Parliament planned to pass laws implementing these Reformed principles on the whole nation of England replacing the Anglo-Catholicism imposed on the realm by the Stuart monarchy. Meeting in 1642 and concluding in 1648, these representative Calvinistic Puritans of Anglican, Presbyterian and Congregational orientation prepared the Westminster Confession and several other key documents of continuing use to the church. Work on the Confession began in the summer of 1645 and concluded in the autumn of 1646.

The Savoy Declaration of Faith and Order (1658): The Savoy Declaration is a modification of the Westminster Confession to suit the Congregational polity. Available online.

Port Royal Version: It is a New Testament translation in French. Le Maistre de Sacy, Le Nouveau Testament de Nostre Seigneur Jesus Christ : traduit en François selon l'edition Vulgate, avec les differences du Grec, 1667, A Mons: Chez Gaspard Migeot.

The Port Royal version. Sometimes known as De Sacy's version, or the Mons Testament. This translation of the New Testament from the Vulgate was begun by Antoine le Maistre (1608-1658), and revised and completed by his brother Louis Isaac le Maistre (1613-1684) - better known by his assumed name of De Sacy, or De Saci - who used the original Greek. The whole was revised by Antoine Arnauld (1612-1694), Pierre Nicole (1625-1695) and other Port Royalists, with the help of the ancient versions and patristic commentaries. The Old Testament was also translated by De Sacy from the Vulgate during his imprisonment in the Bastille; but the necessary permission for printing was given only on condition that notes were added.

The Swiss Declaration: (1675 CE). B. F. Westcott, The Bible In The Church: A Popular Account Of The Collection And Reception Of The Holy Scriptures In The Christian Churches, 1879, Macmillan & Co.: London, p. 278; B. F. Westcott, A General Survey Of The History Of The Canon Of The New Testament, 1896, Seventh Edition, Macmillan & Co. Ltd., London, pp. 502-503.

It declares the Hebrew Bible to be its Old Testament. The contents of the New Testament in this declaration are quite vague. According to Westcott, it states: "...so that together with the volume of the New Testament it is the single and uncorrupted Rule of our faith and life, by whose standard, as by a touchstone, all Versions which exist, whether Eastern or Western, must be tried, and wherever they vary be made comfortable to it."

Does this mean that the Swiss Declaration made both the Eastern and Western versions of the New Testament acceptable.

Westcott & Hort: B. F. Westcott and J. A. Hort, The New Testament in the Original Greek, 1881, Macmillan: London. See the online text of their edition at Christian Classics Ethereal Library.

The text of Westcott and Hort's critical edition of the New Testament has a very strongly Alexandrian text. The "Western" text of Acts is absent. The larger ending of Gospel of Mark, additions to Gospel of John are enclosed inside the double brackets to show the doubtful nature of the text. Addition to 1 John 5:7-8 is absent.

Rahlfs' Critical Edition Of Greek Septuagint: A. Rahlfs, Septuaginta Id Est Vetus Testamentum Graece Iuxta LXX Interpretes, 1935, Privilegierte Württembergische Bibelanstalt. In two volumes.

George Lamsa's Translation of Peshitta: G. M. Lamsa, The Holy Bible From Ancient Eastern Manuscript Containing The Old And New Testaments Translated From Peshitta, The Authorized Bible Of The Church Of The East, 1957, Colins' Clear-Type Press: London & New York.

Revised Standard Version Bible: The Holy Bible - Revised Standard Version - Old And New Testaments Together With The Apocrypha Of The Old Testament, 1965, Thomas Nelson & Sons Ltd.: London.

The Old Testament apocrypha is in the end.

Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia: R. Kittel (ed.), Biblia Hebraica, 1966, Württembergische Bibelanstalt: Stuttgart.

The Greek New Testament, United Bible Societies: K. Aland, M. Black, B. M. Metzger and A. Wikgren (eds.), The Greek New Testament, 1966, Württemberg Bible Society, Stuttgart [UBS1].

New Internation Version Bible: The Holy Bible - New International Version, 1973, Hodder & Stoughton: London.

The NIV is based on the critical text and hence its text is accepted with modifications.

Neo-Vulgate in Latin (Official Roman Catholic Bible): Nova Vulgata Bibliorum Sacrorum Editio [Sacros . Oecum . Concilii Vaticani Il Ratione Habita Iussu Pauli PP. VI Recognita Auctoritate Ioannis Pauli PP. II Promulgata], 1979, Libreria Editrice Vaticana.

The Greek New Testament, United Bible Societies: K. Aland, M. Black, C. M. Martini, B. M. Metzger and A. Wikgren (eds.), The Greek New Testament, 1983, Third Edition (Corrected), United Bible Societies [UBS3].

Jerusalem Bible (Roman Catholic English Translation): The New Jerusalem Bible, 1985, Darton, Longman & Todd.

JPS Tanakh: Tanakh: A Translation Of The Holy Scriptures According To The Traditional Hebrew Text, 1985, The Jewish Publication Society: Philadelphia, Jerusalem.

This is the Jewish translation of the Old Testament/Hebrew Bible.

The Greek New Testament, United Bible Societies: B. Aland, K. Aland, J. Karavidopoulos, C. M. Martini and B. M. Metzger (eds.), The Greek New Testament, 1994, Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft: Stuttgart and United Bible Societies [UBS4].

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