Papyrus 23, P23

‘Abd ar-Rahman Robert Squires & M S M Saifullah

© Islamic Awareness, All Rights Reserved.

First Composed: 8 April 2000

Last Updated: 9 November 2007


Papyrus 23 (G.P. 1229), P23


Grenfell et al. have suggested the date to be the fourth century CE. The Alands have redated it to the third century. However, some scholars have pointed out to the 2nd century style of writing. It is dated late second or early third century.


Oxyrhynchus, Egypt.


About 12.1 cm. x 11.2 cm.

It contain fragment of a leaf from a papyrus codex. The image of the manuscript can be seen here.


It contain James 1:10-12 (verso) and James 1:15-18 (recto).

Textual Character

In general, P23 agrees with , B and C, which represent the best text of the General Epistles. The Alands call the text as "strict."


The fragment is written in good-sized broad uncials rather coarse and irregular in formation, though hooks and thickenings at the end of the strokes show an attempt at ornament.


The Spurlock Museum, University of Illinois, Urbana.


[1] B. P. Grenfell & A. S. Hunt, The Oxyrhynchus Papyri, X, 1914, 16 ff. (No. 1229).

[2] P. W. Comfort & David P. Barrett, The Complete Text Of The Earliest New Testament Manuscripts, 1999, Baker Books, Grand Rapids, Michigan, United States of America, p. 101.

The New Testament Manuscripts