Drachm Of ʿAbd al-Malik Ibn ʿAbd Allāh, Zubayrid Governor Of Bīshāpūr, 66 AH / 685-686 CE

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First Composed: 15th January 2007

Last Modified: 27th January 2007

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Assalamu ʿalaykum wa rahamatullahi wa barakatuhu:

Drachm of ʿAbd al-Malik ibn ʿAbd Allāh, Zubayrid governor of Bīshāpūr, 66 AH / 685-6 CE.


66 AH / 685-686 CE.


Obverse field: Typical late Arab-Sassanian bust with name of ʿAbd al-Malik ibn ʿAbd Allāh (in Middle Persian). Obverse margin: bism Allāh / Muḥammad rasūl / Allāh ("In the name of God, Muḥammad is the Messenger of God").

Reverse field: Typical Arab-Sassanian fire-altar with attendants with mint (abbreviation) and date in Middle Persian, i.e., 66 AH / 685-686 CE. Reverse margin: Pellet at 7h30.


In 66 AH / 685-686 CE, the year after ʿAbd al-Malik accession (Ramaḍān 65 AH / April- May 685 CE), the Zubayrid governor of Bīshāpūr, ʿAbd al-Malik ibn ʿAbd Allāh [b. ʿĀmir], issued a silver drachm that bore the short shahāda: bism Allāh Muḥammad rasūl Allāh ("In the name of God, Muḥammad is the Messenger of God"). The issue was repeated in 67 AH / 686-687 CE. This is the earliest occurance of the name "Muḥammad" in a dated Muslim text.


British Museum, London.

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[1] J. Walker, A Catalogue Of The Muhammadan Coins In The British Museum, 1941, Volume I - Arab-Sassanian Coins, British Museum: London, p. 97.

[2] H. Gaube, Arabosasanidische Numismatik, 1973, Handbücher Der Mittelasiatischen Numismatik - Volume 2, Klinkhardt & Biermann: Braunschweig, p. 62.

[3] J. Johns, "Archaeology And The History Of Early Islam: The First Seventy Years", Journal Of The Economic And Social History Of The Orient, 2003, Volume 46, No. 4, pp. 426-427.

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