What's New and Updated?

Updates for the years 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012 and 2013.


31st December 2005

The article The Formation And Closure Of Biblical Canons: A Multifaceted Development is updated with material dealing with the "The Protestant Reformation & The Council Of Trent". This section has been completely rewritten and a lot of new material has been added.

The article is in the section Canon Of The Bible.


26th December 2005

Adding a large papyri fragment that we had missed. The Qurra Papyrus - Instruction Concerning A Claim For Repayment Of A Debt - Egyptian National Library Inv. No. 339, 91 AH. Dated to Safar, 91 AH / December 709 CE - January 710 CE. Light brown, tolerably fine papyrus. The letter, of which 17 lines are preserved, is written by Muslim b. Lubnān in black ink on recto at right-angles to the horizontal fibres. Diacritical points are added sparingly, words are written freely divided at the end of the line. Verso blank. With the exception of the lost heading the letter is very well preserved.

This is added in the section The Arabic Papyri.


25th December 2005

The Qurra Papyrus - Order For Payment By The People Of Psyrou - Egyptian National Library Inv. No. 335, 91 AH. Dated to Safar, 91 AH / December - January, 710 CE. Brown, tolerably fine papyrus. The bilingual text contains twelve lines written at right-angles to the horizontal fibres. The Arabic part is written in black ink, diacritical points are few but sparsely added, ق has one point above. The Greek text is in the brown ink in a neat miniscule hand. Verso blank. It is a good state of preservation. The clay-seal on the folded margin below the text has disappeared, but the place where it was originally affixed is still recognizable.

Updated with a new image and more information is The Qurra Papyrus - Concerning The Dispatch Of The Corn To The Capital & The Remittance Of Charges - Egyptian National Library Inv. No. 331, 91 AH. Dated to Rabī‘ al-Awwal, 91 AH / January - February 710 CE. Two fragments: Egyptian National Library Inv. No. 331 and P. Lond. Br. Mus. Or. 6231 (3). It is a light brown, fine papyrus. The text of the letter is quite exceptionally written in black ink parallel to the vertical fibres, i.e., on verso; diacritical points, which in line 2 are in the form of small slanting lines, are but sparsely added. The recto is blank.

These are added in the section The Arabic Papyri.

We have also added an introduction to The Arabic Papyri to help the reader with the material.

With a sustained effort, by Allah's leave, we have managed to include more than 50% (only!) of the published Arabic papyri. However, there are three papyri from mid-first century of hijra which we would add a little bit later as we are waiting to receive them. We may not add any more Qurra papyri as we already have them in sufficient numbers.


24th December 2005

The Qurra Papyrus - Order For Payment By The People Of The Homestead Of Hagios Pinoutios- Egyptian National Library Inv. No. 336, 91 AH. Dated to Safar, 91 AH / December - January, 710 CE. Brown, tolerably fine papyrus. The document consists of two pieces; the smaller one measures 8.6 cm x 21 cm and the larger one is 11.7 cm x 20.8 cm. Both joined together meaure 20 cm x 21 cm. The bilingual text contains eleven lines written at right-angles to the horizontal fibres. The Arabic part is written in black ink by the hand of Rāshid, diacritical points are few but sparsely added, ق has one point above. The Greek text is in the brown ink in a neat miniscule hand.

This is added in the section The Arabic Papyri.


23rd December 2005

The Qurra Papyrus - Order For Payment By The People Of The Monastery Of Abba Hermaotos - Egyptian National Library Inv. No. 334, 91 AH. Dated to Safar, 91 AH / December - January, 710 CE. Light brown, tolerably fine papyrus. The text is written on the recto in black ink at right-angles to the horizontal fibres. Diacritical points are sparingly added. Verso is blank. The papyrus breaks off directly after the last line of the Arabic text, the Greek minute above the basmala, as also the Greek text below line 7 is lost. The extant portion of the text is in fairly good condition.

This is added in the section The Arabic Papyri.


22nd December 2005

It is the turn of demand notes from the first century of hijra. The Qurra Papyrus - Order For Payment By The People Of The Monastery Of Saint Mary - Egyptian National Library Inv. No. 333, 91 AH. Dated to Safar, 91 AH / December - January, 710 CE. Light brown, tolerably fine papyrus. The Arabic text is written on the recto in the black ink by the hand of Rāshid at right angles to the horizontal fibres, diacritical points are added sparingly. At the top, remainders of the Greek minute, in rust coloured ink, are preserved.

This is added in the section The Arabic Papyri.


21st December 2005

Addition of PER Inv. Ar. Pap. 3976 - Fragment Of A Protocol, 98-99 AH. Dated to 98-99 AH / 716-717 CE, this bilingual fragment mentions the names of Umayyad caliph Al-Walīd and the governer Sulaymān b. ‘Abd al-Malik.

Update of A Bilingual Papyrus Of A Protocol - Egyptian National Library Inv. No. 61, 86-96 AH with more information, a new picture and references. Dated to 86-96 AH / 705-715 CE. It is a light brown, strong papyrus. The text of the protocol, written in blackish brown ink, occupies the whole first sheet of the roll, 18.4 cm. high; the annexed second sheet of the roll, of which a piece, 17.4 cm. high, still survives, bears eight lines of a Coptic document written in black ink across the horizontal fibres. More than half of the protocol has disappeared from the right hand side.

These are added in the section The Arabic Papyri.


20th December 2005

A Bilingual Protocol Text Mentioning The Caliph Al-Walīd - Egyptian National Library Inv. No. 67, 90-91 AH. Dated to 90-91 AH / 709-710 CE. Yellow-brown, fine papyrus. The text of the protocol is written in blackish-brown ink. Only the right half of the protocol is preserved. The margin remains upon the right side only, the top and left side are broken off, parts of the text are destroyed.

This is added in the section The Arabic Papyri.


19th December 2005

A Bilingual Protocol Text Mentioning The Caliph Al-Walīd - Egyptian National Library Inv. No. 66, 95-96 AH. Dated to 95-96 AH / 714-715 CE. Yellow-brown, in several places darker coloured, coarse cardboard-like papyrus. The text of the protocol, written in blackish brown ink, occupies the first sheet of the roll entirely. On the reverse there are two lines of a Coptic text written in black ink across the horizontal fibres.

Update of P. Mich. 6714 - A Bilingual Papyrus From 22-54 AH. Dated to 22-54 AH / 643-674 CE by Adolf Grohmann. Rough, light brown, somewhat in parts dark coloured papyrus. The Byzantine protocol (in Greek) is written in four lines with brown ink parallel to the vertical fibres. In the last line of the protocol text an line in Arabic in black ink is parallel to the vertical fibres, which shows the typical writing features of the first half of the 1st century of hijra and is partly dotted. Dotting is seen for the letters ز، ق and ن.

These are added in the section The Arabic Papyri.


18th December 2005

Addition of a bilingual papyrus written in Greek and Arabic. A Wheat Receipt Issued By Two Officials Of The Granary At Babylon (Old Cairo) - Egyptian National Library Inv. No. 126, 87 AH. Dated to Dhūl-Qa‘dah, 87 AH / October-November, 706 CE. The Arabic text is written in on the recto in black ink at right-angles to the horizontal fibres; the Greek text running in the same direction is written in the brown ink. The verso is blank.

Also updated is the papyrus P. Colt. No. 60 - A Bilingual Entagion From The Year 54 AH with more information, a new picture and references. It is dated to 54 AH / 674 CE. An entagion is an announcement of taxes owed by the local community. This entagion was found during excavations at Nessana, 59 kms south of Beer-Sheba. It is a light brown, fine papyrus, written in brown ink. The papyrus was folded up. In the center of the fold an oval - Nile mud seal measures 1.2:0.9 cm This document was found in ‘Auja' al-Hafir (Nestana or Nessana), South Palestine. Diacritics appear on ب، ث، ز and ق.

These are added in the section The Arabic Papyri.


17th December 2005

Addition of a very early papyrus. PER Inv. Ar. Pap. 94 - Fragment Of An Edict, 25-30 AH. This fragment of an edict was dated by Adolf Grohmann to 25-30 AH / 645-50 CE. Not much attention had been paid to this papyrus because of its fragmentary nature.

This is added in the section The Arabic Papyri.


16th December 2005

The Qurra Papyrus - Concerning The Enrolling Soldiers In The Local Lists- Egyptian National Library Inv. No. 329, 90 AH. Dated to Rabi‘ I, 91 AH / January-February, 709 CE. Light brown, fine papyrus. The papyrus is in a very fragile and brittle condition, especially in the outer parts. The ends of the lines 2, 5, 9, 11-13, 16, 18, 20-22 are broken off, but besides this mutilation the leaf is perforated and badly worm-eaten. Verso blank.

This is added in the section The Arabic Papyri.


15th December 2005

Two very early inscriptions from diverse locations.

An Arabic Inscription From Turkey, 22 AH. An inscription from Batman Su (or Nymphæus), Turkey. Although this inscription had generated a lot of discussion but it failed to provide a sustained interested due to lack of a photograph.

An Arabic Inscription From Cyprus, 29 AH. Dated to Ramadan, 29 AH / May, 650 CE. No photograph was provided for this inscription, although the content was given.

These are added in the section The Arabic & Islamic Inscriptions: Examples Of Arabic Epigraphy.


14th December 2005

The Qurra Papyrus - Concerning The Fugitives - Egyptian National Library Inv. No. 330, 91 AH. Dated to Jumada II, 91 AH / April-May, 710 CE. Light brown papyrus. The text of the letter is written on recto in black ink, at right angles to the horizontal fibres, diacritical points are added sparingly. The back is blank.

This is added in the section The Arabic Papyri.


13th December 2005

We will now start off with the Qurra papyri at the Egyptian National Library, Cairo. The Qurra Papyrus - Concerning The Fining Of Some Villages - Egyptian National Library Inv. No. 328, 91 AH. Dated to Rabi‘ I, 91 AH / January, 710 CE. Light brown, fine papyrus. Diacritical marks are but sparsely added, words are freely divided at the end of the line. Verso is blank. The papyrus is, owing to the folding, brittle and perforated. The heading is lost.

This is added in the section The Arabic Papyri.


12th December 2005

The Qurra Papyrus - Oriental Institute No. 13759, 90-91 AH. Dated to 90-91 AH / 709-710 CE. Medium brown, fine papyrus, but in poor condition. The beginning and the left half along almost the entire length are broken off and missing. This document deals with arrears from ‘Abd Allāh ibn ‘Abd al-Malik's time, it was probably among the first of Qurra ibn Sharīk's documents and hence dated 90 AH, at the latest 91 AH.

This is added in the section The Arabic Papyri.


11th December 2005

The Qurra Papyrus - Oriental Institute No. 13758, 90 AH. Dated to Dhū al-Qa‘dah / Dhū al-Hijjah, 90 AH / September - October, 709 CE. Medium brown papyrus. The first part is lost; the rest is in very good condition. The writing throughout is clear and has suffered hardly any loss at all. It contains an admonition and that makes it interesting to read.

This is added in the section The Arabic Papyri.


10th December 2005

We have updated The ‘Aqabah Inscription From The Time Of ‘Abd al-Malik [73 AH] with the information which we were not aware of earlier. This is the oldest inscription in Islam relating to the inaugral of a road and it is also the second longest and almost the fullest inscription from the time of ‘Abd al-Malik after that of the Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem. This inscription furnishes clear evidence that ‘Abd al-Malik did not satisfy himself with repairing the old roads and maintaining them in a fit state of traffic, but that he also thought of, and at least in this instance executed enterprises on a large scale.

This is present in the section The Arabic & Islamic Inscriptions: Examples Of Arabic Epigraphy, bearing a slightly modified title.

With this we have added all the Arabic and Islamic inscriptions from the first century of hijra, except for one. However, there exist three more examples of first century Islamic inscriptions which have not been photographed but their contents reproduced. Insha'allah, we will try to add these too in the future. We hope that readers, whether Muslims or non-Muslims, will benefit from the examples of early Arabic epigraphy.


9th December 2005

Addition of a new inscription of a Milestone Of Deir Al-Qalt From The Time Of ‘Abd al-Malik [65 - 86 AH]. This marble milestone was found at the cloister of Khozaiba near Deir al-Qalt on the Jerusalem-Damascus road, 107 miles from Jerusalem. It has six remaining lines, as the top and the right hand side have broken off.

This is present in the section The Arabic & Islamic Inscriptions.

‘Abdallah ‘Abd al-Fadi's book Is The Qur'an Infallible?, 1995, Light of Life: Villach (Austria), is added to the articles On The Sources Of The Qur'anic Dhul-Qarnayn, The "Samaritan" Error In The Qur'an, Theodor Nöldeke And Fertility In Ancient Egypt, Surah al-Walayah & Surah al-Nurayn: Their Authenticity & Literary Style, Prophet Muhammad's Night Journey To Al-Masjid Al-Aqsa - The Farthest Mosque, Well, Did Muhammad Not Copy Some Verses Of The Qur'an From Imru'l Qais?, Arda Wiraz Namag (Iranian "Divina Commedia") And The Prophet's Night Journey, Is The Qur'anic Story Of Solomon & Sheba From The Targum Sheni?, On The Sources Of The Story Of Cain & Abel In The Qur'an, The Story Of Abraham And Idols In The Qur'an And Midrash Genesis Rabbah and To Moo Or Not To Moo, That Is The Question!. This is one of the popular books used by the Christian missionaries against the Qur'an although it is poorly referenced and poorly argued.


8th December 2005

A new inscription Milestone Of Khān Al-Hathrūra From The Time Of ‘Abd al-Malik [65 - 86 AH] is added. This milestone is from Khān al-Hathrūra, Palestine, on the road between Jerusalem and Damascus. The marble slab contains seven lines engraved in bas-relief. The first two lines are broken off.

Also updated is the Milestone Of Abū Ghōsh From The Time Of ‘Abd al-Malik [65 - 86 AH] with new material and references.

These are present in the section The Arabic & Islamic Inscriptions.


7th December 2005

We have updated the article Milestone Of Bāb Al-Wād From The Time Of Abd al-Malik [65 - 86 AH] with new material and references. This milestone was found in a ruin north of the watchtower at Bāb al-Wād on the road from Jerusalem to al-Ramla. It has diacritical strokes for ث، ن and ي, as seen in the last line.

This is present in the section The Arabic & Islamic Inscriptions.

Also added is The Qurra Papyrus - Oriental Institute No. 13756, 91 AH. Dated to Safar, 90 AH / December 9, 709 CE - January 6, 710 CE. Medium fine papyrus, light brown. The entire length of the piece is preserved, but it is considerably damaged by worms. The seal in the end is of dark clay, in perfect condition, showing the figure of a four-footed animal with a star above its back.

This is added in the section The Arabic Papyri.


6th December 2005

The Qurra Papyrus - Oriental Institute No. 13755, 91 AH. Dated to Muharram, 91 AH / November 9 - December 8, 709 CE. Medium brown, very fine papyrus. The beginning is broken off and missing; part of the upper left section is also lost; the right margin is clipped at the "fold" but the writing is not much affected.

This is added in the section The Arabic Papyri.


4th December 2005

Perhaps is the best known Arabic papyri comes from the time of Qurra bin Sharīk, the governer of Egypt during the time of Umayyad Caliph al-Walīd (86-96 AH / 705-715 CE). These papyri are collective called the Qurra papyri and are housed in various museums around the world. We first start off with the ones at the Oriental Institute, Chicago. The Qurra Papyrus - Oriental Institute No. 13757, 90 AH, dated to Rabī‘ I, 90 AH / January 18 - February 16, 709 CE. Medium brown, very fine papyrus. Slightly worm eaten; right half much broken, but fortunately between the lines.

This is added in the section The Arabic Papyri.


3rd December 2005

After the addition of the earliest Arabic parchment from 22 AH, now it is the turn of The Oldest Arabic Parchment Manuscript From Central Asia [99-100 AH / 718-719 CE]. This parchment letter from Sogdiana was discovered in 1934 and is the oldest Arabic manuscript from Central Asia. It was sent from the local Sogdian governor Dīwāstī to his overlord in Khurasan, Al-Jarrah bin ‘Abdallah. Al-Jarrah was in office for 17 months, from 99-100 AH (from 718 to April 719 CE), to which period this letter can, therefore, be dated.

This is added in the section The Arabic Papyri.


2nd December 2005

After a volley of the Arabic Islamic inscriptions, let us turn our attention to the Arabic papyri. We start with P. Berol. 15002 - One Of The Earliest Arabic Parchments From 22 AH. It is a parchment fragment of a receipt for the settlement of accounts. This is one of two earliest Arabic papyri; the other one being the celebrated PERF No. 558. Diacritical dots can be seen on the letter ن.

This is added in the section The Arabic Papyri.


1st December 2005

An Arabic Inscription From Khirbat Nitil, 100 AH. This inscription was discovered in 1886 at the archaeological site of Khirbat Nitil. The eight lines are located in an inner vaulted room in the western wall. The inscription shows a dot below for غ. The inscription mentions hawd Muhammad, i.e., the pool of Prophet Muhammad in Paradise, from which the believers will drink. This pool is mentioned in many hadiths.

With this update, more than 90% of Islamic inscriptions from the first century of hijra have been added to the list. The remaining would be added soon, insha'allah.

This is added in the section The Arabic & Islamic Inscriptions.


30th November 2005

The Qasr Burqu‘ Building Inscription Of Prince Al-Walid Dated 81 AH. This building inscription in Qasr Burqu‘ was built by al-Walid before his ascension to the throne (705-715 CE).

This is added in the section The Arabic & Islamic Inscriptions.


29th November 2005

A Dedicatory Inscription On An Earthen Bowl For Sulayman Bin ‘Abd al-Malik, 96 AH. This earthen bowl was manufactured for Prince Sulayman b. ‘Abd al-Malik before his ascension to the throne.

This is added in the section The Arabic & Islamic Inscriptions.


28th November 2005

The Inscription On The Turban Of Samuel Bin Musa Dated 88 AH. An interesting woven inscription from Egypt and it is the second earliest dated Islamic textile after the tiraz inscription. The inscription was done on a turban for Samuel b. Musa, perhaps a Jew or a Christian, in the year 88 AH.

This is added in the section The Arabic & Islamic Inscriptions.


27th November 2005

The Kasr Kharana Inscription Of 92 AH, a pious and moving invocation, is full of Qur'anic flavour.

This is added in the section The Arabic & Islamic Inscriptions. The material in this section has been rearranged and the inscriptions are now listed in a chronological order.


26th November 2005

A band of inscriptions usually on textiles is called the tiraz. The silk with the tiraz inscription in the name of Marwan, one of the Umayyad caliphs, exists in three pieces, all found in Egypt, is dated to the time of Marwan ibn al-Hakam. This dating makes it the earliest known Islamic textile. Details of this interesting inscription can be seen in the article A Tiraz Inscription From The Time Of Marwan I, 64-65 AH.

This is added in the section The Arabic & Islamic Inscriptions.


25th November 2005

An Early Arabic Inscription In A Bronze Can From 69 AH. Here a bronze can is shown with an inscription placed around the rim, perhaps originating from Basra during the Umayyad period.

This is added in the section The Arabic & Islamic Inscriptions.


23rd November 2005

Addition to two Islamic inscriptions on the Darb Zubayda route, one of them very early.

An Islamic Inscription On The Darb Zubayda Dated 40 AH. This inscription was found on the Darb Zubayda caravan route at Wadi 'l-Shamiya. This is the second earliest dated Islamic inscription.

An Islamic Inscription On The Darb Zubayda Dated 56 AH. This inscription was found on the Darb Zubayda caravan route at al-Khashna.

These are added in the section The Arabic & Islamic Inscriptions.


22nd November 2005

It was claimed by Nöldeke that Muhammad was "ignorant" of everything outside of Arabia and the example given to support this assertion was that the Prophet made the fertility of Egypt - where rain is almost never seen and never missed - depend on rain instead of the inundation of the Nile. As to who exactly is ignorant about the facts in ancient Egypt is discussed in the article Theodor Nöldeke And Fertility In Ancient Egypt.

This article is in the section Refutation Of External Contradictions In The Qur'an.


13th November 2005

The Arabic inscriptions from the first century of hijra inscribed in copper plaques at the eastern entrance and the northern portal of the Dome of the Rock are not as well-known as the ones inscribed inside the Dome of the Rock. Nevertheless, they form an interesting set of inscriptions from the time of the Umayyad Caliph ‘Abd al-Malik. The picture of the inscriptions and their translation is provided in the article The Copper Plaque Inscriptions At The Dome Of The Rock In Jerusalem [72 AH].

This is added in the section The Arabic & Islamic Inscriptions and can also be accessed from the section the Dome Of The Rock.


11th November 2005

It has been claimed that the Prophet's error of making Haman contemporary with Korah (Qarun in the Qur'an) may have come from the Midrash Numbers Rabbah. Is it a valid claim of simply a misreading of the text as well as its date? We examine it in the article Midrash Numbers Rabbah & Haman In The Qur'an.

This article is in the section Refutation Of The Borrowing Theories Of The Qur'an.


7th November 2005

The article The Formation And Closure Of Biblical Canons: A Multifaceted Development is updated with material refuting the claim that the Nestle-Aland critical text is the "original" text of the New Testament. See ref. 80.

The article On The Sources Of The Qur'anic Dhul-Qarnayn has been updated with the addition of J. Horovitz's Koranische Untersuchungen, 1926, Walter De Gruyter: Berlin & Leipzig; T. Nöldeke's (J. S. Black [Trans.]), Sketches From Eastern History, 1892, Adam and Charles Black: London & Edinburgh; Ibn Warraq's The Origins Of The Koran: Classic Essays On Islam's Holy Book, 1998, Prometheus Books; N. A. Newman's The Qur'an: An Introductory Essay By Theodor Nöldeke, 1992, Interdisciplinary Biblical Research Institute: Hatfield (PA); C. Turner's (Ed.) The Koran: Critical Concepts In Islamic Studies, 2004, Volume I (Provenance and Transmission), RoutledgeCurzon: London & New York and A. Rippin's Muslims: Their Religious Beliefs And Practices, 2003, Routledge.

F. S. Coplestone's Jesus Christ Or Mohammed? A Guide To Islam And Christianity That Helps Explain The Differences, 2001, Christian Focus Publications: Ross-shire (Scotland), is added to the articles Textual Reliability / Accuracy Of The New Testament, Is The Qur'anic Story Of Solomon & Sheba From The Targum Sheni? and The Story Of Abraham And Idols In The Qur'an And Midrash Genesis Rabbah.


30th October 2005

Has there been a uniform canon of the Bible from apostolic times or has there been a uniform misrepresentation of the historical processes relating to the conception, formation and closure of the biblical canons? The Christian missionaries have claimed that the formation of the New Testament canon was complete in the 4th century CE. Is that true? We examine this claim in the article The Formation And Closure Of Biblical Canons: A Multifaceted Development. This article charts the course of history of the biblical canon and lists various canons of the Bible in different churches. The thorny question, whether the canon is open or closed, is also addressed. What is the manuscript evidence for a twenty-six book New Testament canon? A critical appraisal of evangelical, missionary and apologist claims regarding the history, formation and closure of the biblical canons, especially the twenty-seven book canon of the New Testament, is provided.

The article is in the section Canon Of The Bible.


18th October 2005

More material is added to the article Al-Aziz & Potiphar: A Confused Nomenclature? as well as references. The references are K. A. Kitchen's On The Reliability Of The Old Testament, 2003, Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company: Michigan; K. A. Kitchen's "Genesis 12-50 In The Near Eastern World", in R. S. Hess, G. J. Wenham & P. E. Satterthwaite (Eds.), He Swore An Oath: Biblical Themes From Genesis 12-50, 1994, The Paternoster Press: Carlisle (UK) and Baker Book House: Grand Rapids (MI) and J. K. Hoffmeier's Israel In Egypt: The Evidence For The Authenticity Of The Exodus Tradition, 1999, Oxford University Press: Oxford (UK).

Addition of N. A. Newman's Muhammad, The Qur'an & Islam, 1996, Interdisciplinary Biblical Research Institute: Hatfield (PA) in the articles Crucifixion Or 'Crucifiction' In Ancient Egypt?, The "Samaritan" Error In The Qur'an, To Moo Or Not To Moo, That Is The Question!, Is The Qur'anic Story Of Solomon & Sheba From The Targum Sheni?, On The Sources Of The Qur'anic Dhul-Qarnayn, The Source Of Qur'an 18:65-82: Arent Wensinck's Jewish Source?, Is The Source Of Qur'an 18:60-65 The Alexander Romances?, Is The Qur'anic Surah Of Joseph Borrowed From Jewish Midrashic Sources? and On The Sources Of The Story Of Cain & Abel In The Qur'an.

We have updated the article Textual Reliability / Accuracy Of The New Testament with Norman L. Geisler's Christian Apologetics, 2002 (15th Printing), Baker Book House: Grand Rapids.


13th October 2005

It has been claimed by Christian missionaries that al-‘Aziz is "an anachronistic title" given to Potiphar in the story of Joseph in the Qur'an. What is actually anachronistic is made clearer in the article Al-Aziz & Potiphar: A Confused Nomenclature?

This article is in the section Refutation Of External Contradictions In The Qur'an.

We have updated the article Textual Reliability / Accuracy Of The New Testament with Craig Blomberg's Making Sense Of The New Testament: Three Crucial Questions, 2004, Baker Academic: Grand Rapids.

This article is in the section Textual Integrity Of The Bible.


3rd October 2005

We have updated the article Textual Reliability / Accuracy Of The New Testament with J. Ankerberg & J. Weldon's Knowing The Truth About The Reliability Of The Bible, 1997, Harvest House Publishers: Eugene (OR), J. P. Moreland's Scaling The Secular City: A Defense Of Christianity, 1988 (2nd Printing), Baker Book House: Grand Rapids (MI) and Samy Tanagho's Glad News! God Loves You My Muslim Friend, 2003, Authentic Media: Waynesboro (GA).

The "Samaritan" Error In The Qur'an is updated with a brief discussion on Jacques Jomier's (Trans. Zoe Hersov), The Great Themes Of The Qur'an, 1997, SCM Press Ltd.: London.


24th September 2005

Addition of Daniel Ali and Robert Spencer's Inside Islam: A Guide To Catholics, 2003, Ascension Press: West Chester (PA) in the articles On The Sources Of The Qur'anic Dhul-Qarnayn, Crucifixion Or 'Crucifiction' In Ancient Egypt? and The "Samaritan" Error In The Qur'an.

Also updated is the article Well, Did Muhammad Not Copy Some Verses Of The Qur'an From Imru'l Qais? with Anis Shorrosh's Islam Revealed: A Christian Arab's View Of Islam.

We have updated the article Textual Reliability / Accuracy Of The New Testament with B. Wilson's (Compiler) The Best Of Josh McDowell: A Ready Defense.


17th September 2005

Addition of another canon, i.e., the Doctrine of Addai in The Canons Of The Old Testament & The New Testament Through The Ages. The Doctrine of Addai gives the earliest New Testament of Syriac Church. Also notice that the Old Testament canon appears to be only "the Law and the Prophets".

The article is in the section Canon Of The Bible.

Also updated is the article Well, Did Muhammad Not Copy Some Verses Of The Qur'an From Imru'l Qais? with Robert Morey's The Islamic Invasion: Confronting The World's Fastest Growing Religion. It seems that Morey has not lost hope in the idea of Imru'l Qais being allegedly a source of the Qur'anic verses.

These articles are in the section Refutation Of The Borrowing Theories Of The Qur'an.


14th September 2005

The article Prophet Muhammad's Night Journey To Al-Masjid Al-Aqsa - The Farthest Mosque is updated with a picture of another open mosque at Nahal Oded where the qibla is depicted by an upright stone.

This article is in the section Refutation Of External Contradictions In The Qur'an.


4th September 2005

We have added the article Armenian Canon Lists IV – The List Of Gregory Of Tatcew (14th Century), Michael E. Stone, Harvard Theological Review, 1979, Volume 72, No. 3-4, pp. 237-244. This article deals with the list of Old Testament books in the Armenian Canon according to Gregory of Tatcew. It is interesting to note that Gregory calls the Old Testament books rejected by Protestants as the "inspired" scriptures.

The article is in the section Canon Of The Bible.


28th August 2005

We have added MS. Or. 2165: A Qur'anic Manuscript From 1st Century Hijra In The British Library. The is hailed by the earlier keepers of this manuscript as "probably the earliest Qur'an ever brought to Europe".

This material is in the section The Qur'anic Manuscripts.

The article The "Samaritan" Error In The Qur'an has been updated with an addition of a genetic study concerning the origins of Samaritans. The article is also reworked with the addition of more references. We are making a continuous effort to ensure that our articles are up-to-date so that we as well as our readers benefit from the latest information.

This article is in the section Refutation Of External Contradictions In The Qur'an.


22nd August 2005

The article Is The Qur'anic Story Of Solomon & Sheba From The Targum Sheni? has been updated with the addition of Jacques Jomier's book The Bible And The Qur'an.

Also updated is the article On The Sources Of The Story Of Cain & Abel In The Qur'an with missionaries' references. We have added Anis Shorrosh's Islam Revealed: A Christian Arab's View Of Islam, Noman Geisler & Abdul Saleeb's Answering Islam: The Crescent In The Light Of The Cross, N. L. Geisler's Baker Encyclopedia Of Christian Apologetics and Abdiya A. Abdul-Haqq's Sharing Your Faith With A Muslim and Mateen Elass' Understanding the Koran: A Quick Christian Guide To The Muslim Holy Book.

These articles are in the section Refutation Of The Borrowing Theories Of The Qur'an.

The article The "Samaritan" Error In The Qur'an has been updated with the addition of Henri Lammens' book Islam: Beliefs and Institutions.

This article is in the section Refutation Of External Contradictions In The Qur'an.


15th August 2005

Addition of the canon of Didymus the Blind in The Canons Of The Old Testament & The New Testament Through The Ages.

The article is in the section Canon Of The Bible.

The article On The Sources Of The Qur'anic Dhul-Qarnayn has been updated with the addition of Christian missionaries' references. They are Reza F. Safa's Inside Islam: Exposing And Reaching For The World Of Islam and Mateen Elass' Understanding the Koran: A Quick Christian Guide To The Muslim Holy Book.

This article is in the section Refutation Of The Borrowing Theories Of The Qur'an.

Also updated is the article Crucifixion Or 'Crucifiction' In Ancient Egypt? with Joyce Tyldesley's Judgement Of The Pharaoh: Crime And Punishment In Ancient Egypt (2000, Phoenix: London). This book is easy to read and gives a great deal of information about crime and punishment in Egypt including impalement.

The article is in the section Refutation Of The So-Called External Contradictions In The Qur'an.


10th August 2005

The article Were Burnt Bricks Used In Ancient Egypt In The Time Of Moses? is now rewritten in parts that includes the addition of hieroglyphic evidence from ancient Egypt.

The article is in the section Refutation Of The So-Called External Contradictions In The Qur'an.


5th August 2005

We have updated the article Textual Reliability / Accuracy Of The New Testament with arguments dealing with the importance of variants found in the critical editions of the New Testament and with more references.

The new references added are Josh McDowell's, The New Evidence That Demands A Verdict: Evidence I & II Fully Updated In One Volume To Answer Questions Challenging Christians In The 21st Century, 1999, Thomas Nelson Publishers: Nashville and Ron Rhodes's, Reasoning From The Scriptures With Muslims, 2002, Harvest House Publishers: Eugene (OR).

This article is in the section Textual Integrity Of The Bible.

Also updated is the article Crucifixion Or 'Crucifiction' In Ancient Egypt? with a note discussing the rarity of the hieroglyphic determinative showing a man bent upon the stake.

The article is in the section Refutation Of The So-Called External Contradictions In The Qur'an.


31st July 2005

The article Crucifixion Or 'Crucifiction' In Ancient Egypt? has been completely rewritten using hieroglyphic evidence from ancient Egypt. It offers a devastating refutation to Christian missionaries' fictitious claims of non-existence of crucifixion in Egypt (in fact many Bible dictionaries clearly affirm a long history of crucifixion in ancient Egypt!).

The article is in the section Refutation Of The So-Called External Contradictions In The Qur'an.


26th June 2005

We have added more locations of Nabataean inscriptions near Tabuk, Saudi Arabia, (see the map) in the article From Alphonse Mingana To Christoph Luxenberg: Arabic Script & The Alleged Syriac Origins Of The Qur'an. The reference used was Solaiman Abdal Rahman al-Theeb's Aramaic And Nabataean Inscriptions From North-West Saudi Arabia, 1993, King Fahd National Library. A small discussion on the linguistic problems concerning Luxenberg's aramäische-arabische Mischsprache is also added.

This material is in The Qur'anic Manuscripts and can also be accessed from the section Refutation Of The Borrowing Theories Of The Qur'an.

The article Is The Qur'anic Story Of Solomon & Sheba From The Targum Sheni? has been updated with the addition of Christian missionaries' references. We have added Dr. A. A. Shorrosh's Islam Revealed: A Christian Arab's View Of Islam, N. L. Geisler & A. Saleeb's Answering Islam: The Crescent In The Light Of The Cross, N. L. Geisler's Baker Encyclopedia Of Christian Apologetics and A. A. Abdul-Haqq's Sharing Your Faith With A Muslim.

This article is in the section Refutation Of The Borrowing Theories Of The Qur'an.


24th June 2005

We have added A First Century BC Arabic Inscription In Musnad Script At Qaryat Al-Faw. Although the inscription is in the classical Arabic (or the "old" Arabic), it was written in the Musnad script. This is the earliest known Arabic inscription written in the Musnad script.

This is added in the section The Arabic & Islamic Inscriptions.

We have also added the manuscript count of the New Testament as of 2003 in the article Textual Reliability / Accuracy Of The New Testament.

This article is in the section Textual Integrity Of The Bible.


20th June 2005

A brief introduction to Modern Approaches To New Testament Textual Criticism is added. We hope that this brief discussion would help the readers get a good idea about various approaches used to prepare the critical texts of the New Testament.

This article is in the section Textual Integrity Of The Bible.


12th June 2005

We are pretty certain that many of you should have heard the work of Christoph Luxenberg called Die syro-aramäische Lesart des Koran: Ein Beitrag zur Entschlüsselung der Koransprache (The Syro-Aramaic Reading of the Qur'an - A Contribution to the Deciphering of Qur'anic Language) and the wide publicity of it given by the New York Times, The Guardian and Newsweek among others. The question now is whether Luxenberg's book a path-breaking discourse or is it yet another headline grabbing exercise? We decided to have a look at some of the assumptions made in this book in the article From Alphonse Mingana To Christoph Luxenberg: Arabic Script & The Alleged Syriac Origins Of The Qur'an.

This is a working document and more material would be added, insha'allah, in the future. The readers would notice that the article is huge and quite comprehensive. A lot of toil and treasure has gone into it. Please do not forget to go through the References & Notes towards the end which many of you would find extremely useful.

Some readers had expressed concerned as to why we have put many pre-Islamic Arabic inscriptions in the section The Arabic & Islamic Inscriptions. They would surely find their importance after reading the above article.

The new material is in The Qur'anic Manuscripts and can also be accessed from the section Refutation Of The Borrowing Theories Of The Qur'an.


5th June 2005

The article The Story Of Abraham And Idols In The Qur'an And Midrash Genesis Rabbah is updated with the addition of Christian missionaries' references. We have added Dr. A. A. Shorrosh's Islam Revealed: A Christian Arab's View Of Islam, M. Elass' Understanding the Koran: A Quick Christian Guide To The Muslim Holy Book, A. A. Abdul-Haqq's Sharing Your Faith With A Muslim, N. L. Geisler & A. Saleeb's Answering Islam: The Crescent In The Light Of The Cross and N. L. Geisler's Baker Encyclopedia Of Christian Apologetics.

This article is in the section Refutation Of The Borrowing Theories Of The Qur'an.

The article The "Samaritan" Error In The Qur'an has been updated with the addition of Gleason Archer's A Survey Of Old Testament Introduction.

This article is in the section Refutation Of External Contradictions In The Qur'an.

A First/Second Century Arabic Inscription Of ‘En ‘Avdat is updated with the information that it is written in Classical Arabic.

This article is in the section The Arabic & Islamic Inscriptions.


26th May 2005

We have updated the article Textual Reliability / Accuracy Of The New Testament with information on the identification of Qumran fragments 7Q4,1, 7Q8 and 7Q12. The first two of these fragments have nothing to do with I Timothy 3:16, 4:1-3 and James 1:23-24, respectively. All the three are from the book I Enoch 103. Also added is a discussion on the (unsuccessful!) first century dating of papyrus fragment P46 by Young Kyu Kim. Consequently, we have updated information of Papyrus 46, P46.

Please also see The New Testament Manuscripts for updated information on first century dating of manuscripts by Thiede and Kim.


23rd May 2005

Often Muslims are bombarded by the Christian missionaries with the reasons why the New Testament is accurate and reliable. The reasons given for its accuracy and reliability are the New Testament's numerical supremacy, very early manuscripts and lots of Patristic citations that can completely reconstruct the New Testament text. Oh! also add those interesting percentages depicting New Testament's textual accuracy into the lot. These are the popular claims of Christian apologetical literature emanating from Geisler, Nix, Thiede, Lee Strobel among others. We decided to look at all these claims a little bit more closely and came up with a completely rewritten article Textual Reliability / Accuracy Of The New Testament.

This article is in the section Textual Integrity Of The Bible.


16th May 2005

The article The "Samaritan" Error In The Qur'an has been updated with the addition of Christian missionaries' references. We have added Dr. A. A. Shorrosh's Islam Revealed: A Christian Arab's View Of Islam, E. M. Caner & E. F. Caner's Unveiling Islam: An Insider's Look At Muslim Life And Beliefs and M. Elass' Understanding the Koran: A Quick Christian Guide To The Muslim Holy Book.

This article is in the section Refutation Of External Contradictions In The Qur'an.


8th May 2005

It is time for the "big-daddy" of all the first century Islamic inscriptions. We have added The Arabic Islamic Inscriptions On The Dome Of The Rock In Jerusalem [72 AH]. Built by Umayyad Caliph ‘Abd al-Malik, these inscriptions have copious amount of Qur'anic verses. A detailed analysis of these Qur'anic verses would be added on a later date, insha'allah.

This is added in the section The Arabic & Islamic Inscriptions and can also be accessed from the section the Dome Of The Rock.


7th May 2005

The article Arda Wiraz Namag (Iranian "Divina Commedia") And The Prophet's(P) Night Journey has been updated with the addition of Christian missionaries' references. We have added Dr. A. A. Shorrosh's Islam Revealed: A Christian Arab's View Of Islam, N. L. Geisler & A. Saleeb's Answering Islam: The Crescent In The Light Of The Cross and N. L. Geisler's Baker Encyclopedia Of Christian Apologetics.

This article is in the section Refutation Of The Borrowing Theories Of The Qur'an.


26th April 2005

There had been some enquiries in the past from people asking us if they can help Islamic Awareness in some way or another financially. At that time we had to thank them for their kind thoughts.

Things are a bit different now. The Islamic Awareness website is experiencing a steady increase in web traffic and we have also intensified our da‘wah work. This site has been maintained financially by the efforts of two to three people. We would like to reduce the financial obligations on them and hence we are seeking donations. If you wish to donate, please go to the main page of Islamic Awareness and click on the PayPal logo. You can also click on "Make A Donation" on top of the page to make payments through PayPal. Although the payment is made to us in the British Pounds, the PayPal takes care of the currency conversion whether you are donating in US dollars or Japanese yen. For the latest rates of currency conversion, please click here.

The money from your donations would be used primarily to buy books, photocopy literature and purchase electronic images of the old manuscripts whether it be of the Qur'an or hadith or sirah. We strive utmost to be up-to-date with latest literature in Islam and Christianity. This involves photocopying of the material in journals, periodicals and books. Writing a new article involves extensive literature survey, collation of material, reading and finally writing. Apart from this, we also have to take care of the web hosting. As one can see, good da‘wah does not come for cheap. Hence your donations would benefit us as well as others, who like us, are seeking knowledge. So, please donate generously. Jazakum allahu khayran!

Please email us if you need any more information.


25th April 2005

The New Testament was transmitted through the writings of the scribes. Who were these scribes? What were their beliefs? Ehrman recognizes the importance of the socio-historical context of the scribes as they were the conveyer of data. Strangely enough, is this not what Muslims scholars recognised and put into practice well over a thousand years ago? We have added this in the article Is The Bible In Our Hands The Same As During The Time Of Muhammad?

The article is in the section Examining The Qur'an.

The textual history of the first three hundred years of the New Testament is described by the textual critics as "the period of relative freedom" or "the period of relative creativity." During this period the majority of changes to the text of the New Testament, both accidental and intentional, originated. A discussion is added about the import of such changes is added in the article "Biblical Inspiration" & Modern Day Textual Criticism.

The article is in the section Canon Of The Bible.


16th April 2005

It is time for us to update our articles with additional references from the Christian missionary literature.

On The Origins Of Kufic Script. Addition of B. A. McDowell & A. Zaka's Muslims And Christians At The Table: Promoting Biblical Understanding Among North American Muslims.

On The Nature Of The Hadith Collections Of Imam Al-Bukhari & Muslim. Addition of Dr. A. A. Shorrosh's Islam Revealed: A Christian Arab's View Of Islam, N. L. Geisler & A. Saleeb's Answering Islam: The Crescent In The Light Of The Cross, A. A. Abdul-Haqq's Sharing Your Faith With A Muslim and N. L. Geisler's Baker Encyclopedia Of Christian Apologetics.

We have a long list of updates to make, insha'allah. They will be done over a period of couple of months or so.


7th April 2005

An interesting pre-Islamic Arabic inscription is added.

A First/Second Century Arabic Inscription Of ‘En ‘Avdat. The inscription contains six lines; first four of which are in Aramaic and the last two are in Arabic, written in Nabataean alphabet. The Arabic portion is composed of verses of poetry. The inscription shows us that not only was Arabic poetry being composed around the turn of first/second centuries, but also that it was much like the poetry that was familiar to us from four centuries later. The Arabic part of the inscription consists of three hemistichs in al-tawil, the most commonly used of the classical meters.

This is added in the section The Arabic & Islamic Inscriptions.


1st April 2005

Two more pre-Islamic Arabic inscriptions are added.

Two Pre-Islamic Arabic Inscriptions From Sakakah, Saudi Arabia. The discovery of these two inscriptions is of considerable importance in confirming suggestions of the evolution of the Arabic writing inside the Arabian peninsula rather than outside its borders.

These two are added in the section The Arabic & Islamic Inscriptions.


21st March 2005

Addition to two Islamic inscriptions and one of them very early.

An Islamic Inscription From Wadi Sabil Dated 46 AH. This graffito was found in Wadi Sabil, Saudi Arabia, during the Philby-Ryckmans-Lippens expedition. The inscription shows a dot below ب. This is the third earliest dated Islamic inscription.

An Islamic Inscription From Sadd al-‘Arda From First Century Of Hijra. This graffito was found in Sadd al-‘Arda, about 10 kms south-east of Ta'if, during the Philby-Ryckmans-Lippens expedition.

These two are added in the section The Arabic & Islamic Inscriptions.


18th March 2005

Is there any significance of the fact that the earliest Christian apologists never refer to the original autographs? Or is it the case that the manuscripts were already so corrupted that the earliest Christian apologists have to practice "textual criticism" due to the fluidity of the text? The significance of the original autographs never being referred to by the earliest Christian apologists is added in the article "Biblical Inspiration" & Modern Day Textual Criticism.

The article is in the section Canon Of The Bible.

Two more pre-Islamic Arabic inscriptions are added.

Zebed Inscription: A Pre-Islamic Trilingual Inscription In Greek, Syriac & Arabic From 512 CE. As the name suggests, it is a trilingual inscription. The Arabic, though, does not translate the Greek but merely listing six names, not all of which are mentioned in Greek.

Jabal Usays Inscription: A Pre-Islamic Arabic Inscription From 528 CE. This is the only pre-Islamic Arabic inscription with historical content.

These two are added in the section The Arabic & Islamic Inscriptions.


13th March 2005

Indeed, Christianity is unable to produce a single Greek New Testament Codex according to the limit and order as stated by Athanasius until the Mt. Athos (Greg. 922) manuscript dated 1116 CE. But what fate did this manuscript suffer at the hands of textual critics? This issue is addressed in the updated version of Is The Bible In Our Hands The Same As During The Time Of Muhammad?

The article is in the section Examining The Qur'an.

PERF No. 665: The Earliest Extant Manuscript Of The Sirah Of Prophet Muhammad By Ibn Hisham is now updated with the images of both recto and verso side of the manuscript.

This article is in the section Issues Concerning Hadith.


9th March 2005

Three more pre-Islamic Arabic inscriptions are added.

Jabal Ramm Inscription: A Fourth Century Pre-Islamic Arabic Inscription. This inscription is the second oldest so far discovered in Arabic alphabet after the Raqush inscription. The salient point of this inscription is that it has diacritical points for the letters ج, ي and ن.

A Pre-Islamic Arabic Inscription At Umm Al-Jimal.

Harran Inscription: A Pre-Islamic Arabic Inscription From 568 CE. A Greek-Arabic bilingual inscription from Harran, near Damascus, Syria.

The grammar in the first two inscriptions is straightforward classical Arabic. The language in them is closer to modern Arabic than the language of Shakespeare is to modern English.

These three are added in the section The Arabic & Islamic Inscriptions.


6th March 2005

Three pre-Islamic Arabic inscriptions are added. Why care about pre-Islamic Arabic inscriptions? Their importance will be clear when the reader goes through the summary below:

Raqush Inscription (Jaussen-Savignac 17): The Earliest Dated Pre-Islamic Arabic Inscription (267 CE). Healey and Smith have hailed it as the earliest dated Arabic document. The salient point of this inscription is that it has diacritical points on the letters د, ش and ر.

Namarah Inscription: The Second Oldest Dated Pre-Islamic Arabic Inscription (328 CE). This inscription is unique is several respects. It is the earliest inscription so far discovered in the classical Arabic language. Also it is the only one of the two Arabic inscriptions written in Nabataean alphabet. This inscription is the only contemporary evidence we have in Arabic about the life of King Imru'l Qais. This inscription, therefore, is of great interest both to the historians as well as philologians.

A Peculiar Inscription Containing Arabic & Nabataean Characters At Sakakah, Saudi Arabia. A inscription contains a curious mixture of Arabic and Nabataean characters showing the diacritical points associated with Arabic letters ب, ت, and ن.

This information is added in the section The Arabic & Islamic Inscriptions. The material in this section is now re-arranged to accomodate the new additions.


27th February 2005

It is well-known that the modern day Bibles are based on eclectic texts. The Christians make a theological statement about the Bible's 'inspiration' on the basis of an uninspired eclectically reconstructed biblical text, which is nothing but a product of judgment of committee of scholars. Such a position gives rise to an interesting paradox. The article "Biblical Inspiration" & Modern Day Textual Criticism deals briefly with this paradox of Christian belief in the 'inspiration' of the Bible. Please do not forget to go through the References & Notes towards the end.

A careful reader would notice that there is more to what meets the eye.

The article is in the section Canon Of The Bible.


24th February 2005

We present PERF No. 665: The Earliest Extant Manuscript Of The Sirah Of Prophet Muhammad By Ibn Hisham. The manuscript is dated to first half of the third century of hijra. This manuscript is believed to be transmitted by students of Ibn Hisham (d. 218 AH /834 CE), perhaps soon after his death.

This article is added in the section Issues Concerning Hadith.


19th February 2005

Today is a blessed day of Ashura, the day on which Allah saved Musa and Bani Israel from the Pharaoh. It was a remarkable change of fortunes that resulted in victory of the believers. We ask Allah to save Muslims from the Pharaohs of our time just like He saved Musa and Bani Israel.

Interestingly, a change of fortune has also occurred for a well-known Qur'anic manuscript in the British Library. Hailed by the earlier keepers of Ms. Or. 2165 (written in Hijazi (or Ma'il) script) as "probably the earliest Qur'an ever brought to Europe" and the British Library says that it is the "oldest Qur'an manuscript" in their possession. It is usually dated around mid-second century of hijra.

However, a recent study has shown that this manuscript is remarkably similar to first century Qur'anic manuscript Ms. Arabe 328a and was written in the Qira'at of Ibn ‘Amir (just like Ms. Arabe 328a!). Based on the similarity between Ms. Arabe 328a and Ms. Or. 2165, the latter's dating is suggested to be the time just before Umayyad Caliph Walid (r. 86-96 AH), i.e., within the period 30-85 AH with the latter end of this time scale being the safer.

This material is added in The Qur'anic Manuscripts. An image of this manuscript will be added on a later date, insha'allah.

Also, we have updated The Qira'at Identified In Qur'anic Manuscripts. Now we have two first century manuscripts in the Qira'at of Ibn ‘Amir.


12th January 2005

It is "confession" time. Addition of 4 "confessional" canons of, viz., the French Confession, the Belgian Confession, the Savoy Declaration of Faith and Order and the Swiss Declaration in The Canons Of The Old Testament & The New Testament Through The Ages. That brings the total to 95 canons.

The article is in the section Canon Of The Bible.


10th January 2005

Addition of 4 more canon of, viz., II Esdras 14:45, Philo, Marcion and Babylonian Talmud in The Canons Of The Old Testament & The New Testament Through The Ages. That brings the total to 91 canons.

The article is in the section Canon Of The Bible.

It is well-known that no two manuscripts of the New Testament are alike. Which one out of the mass of manuscripts represents the canon? This important question was posed by Eldon J. Epp, a well-known textual critic. What could be the answer? The answer is in the updated version of Is The Bible In Our Hands The Same As During The Time Of Muhammad?

The article is in the section Examining The Qur'an.


9th January 2005

We add the article "Arabia Without Spices": An Alternate Hypothesis, Gene W. Heck, Journal Of The American Oriental Society, 2003, Volume 123, No. 3, pp. 547-576. It is an interesting critique of Patricia Crone's Meccan Trade and the Rise of Islam as well as other authors dealing with Makkan economy.

The article is in the section The Qur'anic Studies.


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