Here, insha'allah, we deal with the following claimed external contradictions. By an external contradiction, it is meant that the Qur'an does not agree with the external data, primarily of historical and scientific nature.
The Identification Of Pharaoh During The Time Of Moses
Does the Qur'an portray a Pharaoh "who forgot to die in time?" The Christian missionaries have claimed the Bible clearly and consistently identifies the precise time in which the Exodus occurred. A close examination of the Biblical account proves it is inherently contradictory and contains obvious errors. We highlight the various methods utilised by the apologists and missionaries in their surreptitious efforts to circumvent these issues. Although certain assumptions must be formed in absence of information supplied, contrasted with the confusing and contradictory biblical account, the Qur'anic account of the Exodus is shown to be internally consistent and combines well with the extant egyptological data.
- The Pharaohs During The Time Of Moses According To The Bible
- The Qur'an And The Pharaoh During The Time Of Moses
- The Setting Of The Story: Pharaoh - The Ruler Of Egypt
- The Pharaoh Who Reigned Long
- The Pharaoh As The Principal God Of Ancient Egypt
- Pharaoh - Lord Of The Awtad
- “This Day Shall We Save You In Your Body, That You Mayest Be A Sign To Those Who Come After You... ”
- More Egyptian Miscellanies From The Qur'an
Biblical Haman » Qur’ānic Hāmān: A Case Of Straightforward Literary Transition?
Is the Qur'anic account of Haman appropriated from the Hebrew Bible and Jewish mythology? A critical examination of the Biblical account coupled with an investigation into the ancient Egyptian historical records, paying special attention to the hieroglyphic evidence, concludes with a re-evaluation against Orientalist suppositions in favour of the Qur'an.
- Hāmān According To The Qur’an: A Brief Character Analysis
- Criticism And Caution By Western Scholars
- Critical Examination Of The Biblical Evidence Used Against The Qur'an
- Hāmān In Context: A Literary And Source Critical Assessment Of Silverstein’s Hāmān
- Problematic Terminology Or Serious Methodological Flaw?
- Biblical Hāmān And Qur'anic Hāmān: Similarities, Differences Or Both?
- The Ruler Of Ancient Egypt In The Qur'anic Story Of Joseph And Moses
- Qarun (Korah) In The Bible, Qur'an And Midrash: Who Borrowed From Who?
- From Tower To Tower: The Story Of Aḥiqar And Pharaoh's Sarḥ
- For Every Story, A Villain Named Hāmān
- Qur’anic Hāmān & Pharaoh In The Context Of Ancient Egypt
- Appendix 1: Hāmān And The Tower To Heaven: Unmistakable Evidence Of A Biblical Subtext?
Were Burnt Bricks Used In Ancient Egypt In The Time of Moses?
Was burnt brick as a constructional material used in ancient Egypt? When can we observe the first recorded usage of such materials? An examination of the hieroglyphic record along with ancient Egyptian construction methods and techniques, focussing on burnt brick as a building material, is considered. The results are integrated within an academically accepted ancient Egyptian chronology.
- Hieroglyphic Evidence
- Evidence Of Burnt Brick In Egypt
- Moses & Burnt Bricks
Crucifixion Or ‘Crucifiction’ In Ancient Egypt?
Was crucifixion as a method of punishment known in ancient Egypt? When can we observe the first recorded instances of crucifixion in antiquity? Based on a string of faulty self-made definitions, the Christian missionaries think crucifixion defines a method of execution used by the Romans. The concept of "cross" and "crucifixion" is discussed in conjunction with crucifixion terminology and suspension. Ancient Egyptian hieroglyphic evidence is considered along with some examples of crucifixion in ancient Egypt, making reference to the precise expression of this punishment.
- What Does The Arabic Root Ṣ-L-B Mean?
- Cross, Crucifixion And Punishment In Greek, Latin & English
- Crucifixion In Antiquity
- Crucifixion In Ancient Egypt
Pharaoh And His Gods In Ancient Egypt
Are there discrepancies between various Qur'anic accounts regarding the nature of ancient Egyptian religion during the time of Moses? Based on their reading of over a dozen internet websites, including a website designed for children, the Christian missionaries fail to support their alleged "discrepancy" with recourse to reliable, verifiable historical sources. A careful consideration of a selection of primary sources including papyri, hieroglyphs and associated iconography from the New Kingdom period, shows the statements made by Pharaoh and his chiefs as reported by the Qur'an are in consonance with established ancient Egyptian religious precepts.
- Pharaoh As Lord & God
On The Use Of Miṣr In The Qur'ān
One place which is mentioned more than any other is Egypt, referred to as miṣr in the Qur’an. While Joseph was a foreigner in Egypt, presumably from the land of Canaan, and Pharaoh, on the other hand, a native of Egypt, they both referred to Egypt as miṣr. A valid question may be asked as to whether Egypt during the time of Joseph and Moses was indeed called miṣr by foreigners as well as rulers of Egypt.
- The Name ‘Egypt’ In Ancient Diplomatic Correspondence
Theodor Nöldeke And The Fertility In Ancient Egypt
It was claimed by Nöldeke that Muhammad was "ignorant" of everything outside of Arabia and the example given to support this assertion was that the Prophet made the fertility of Egypt - where rain is almost never seen and never missed - depend on rain instead of the inundation of the Nile. As to who exactly is ignorant about the facts in ancient Egypt is discussed in this article.
- 'Fertility' In Ancient Egypt
- Pressing Of Wine & Oil In Ancient Egypt
Al-‘Aziz & Potiphar: A Confused Nomenclature?
It has been claimed by Christian missionaries that al-Aziz is "an anachronistic title" given to Potiphar in the story of Joseph in the Qur'an. Apart from the obvious circularity in their argument, what is actually anachronistic is made clearer using the ancient Egyptian history.
- What Does The Qur'an Actually Say?
- Potiphar: An Anachronism During The Time Of Joseph
Qur'anic Accuracy Vs. Biblical Error: The Kings & Pharaohs Of Egypt
What do modern linguistic studies and Egyptology reveal about the word "Pharaoh" and its use in ancient Egypt? Are references to the sovereign of Egypt in the Qur'an and the Old Testament consistent with the ancient Egyptological data? An investigation into the differences between the Qur'anic and Biblical narrative highlights some crucial differences regarding the usage of the title "Pharaoh".
- Biblical Usage Of The Word "Pharaoh"
- Qur'anic Usage Of The Words "King" & "Pharaoh"
- Abraham, Joseph & Moses Within Egyptian History
- Modern Linguistic Studies Concerning The Word "Pharaoh"
- Appendix A: A Trace Of The Name 'Jacob' Expressed In Hieroglyphs
"Dirham" In The Time Of Joseph?
According to Christian missionaries, the use of the word dirham in the Qur'anic story of Yusuf is an anachronism because dirham was introduced during the time of Umar, some 10 years after the death of the Prophet. Furthermore, they add that only coins were counted, and, there were no coins in the time of Joseph, it was bullion. However, an assessment of precious metals as a means of trade in ancient Egypt together with a historical and philological examination of the word dirham clearly shows the Qur'anic description of the transaction darāhima madūdatin is accurate.
- Dirham: A Historical & Philological Investigation
- Precious Metals As A Means Of Trade In Ancient Egypt
- "Daric" In The Time Of David?
The "Samaritan" Error In The Qur'an?
Who are the Samaritans and what does recent historical analyses and scientific investigation into their origins tell us about their role in ancient history? Is the Qur'anic mention of al-Samiri (sometimes translated as "the Samaritan") during the time of Moses consistent with modern investigations into the ancestral origins of the Samaritan sect? A critical discussion of the evidence provided by II Kings 17 in light of the extant archaeological evidence calls into question the veracity of the biblical account.
- The "Samaritan" Error
- II Kings 17: The Source Of Samaritan Origins?
- What Do The Samaritans Say About Their Origins?
- A Genetic Perspective
The Queen Of Sheba And Sun Worship
The Christian missionaries have claimed that "archaeology" has shown that sun-worship by the people of Sheba as mentioned in the Qur'an was proven to be incorrect since Moon-worship was prevalent in this particular region. We examine the archaeological evidence from the Kingdom of Sheba in the light of modern scholarship to show that it was predominantly the solar deities that were worshipped. This is also supported by the literary evidence.
- Chronology And Location Of The Kingdom Of Sheba
- Deities Of The Kingdom Of Sheba In Archaeological And Literary Sources
The Time Period Of Jesus' Earthly Ministry
On the basis of a single verse from a specific English translation, the Christian missionaries claim that the Qur'an says that Jesus taught people in "old age". A brief analysis of the lexical, exegetical and chronological sources with particular reference to key Arabic terms and New Testament chronology criticism, highlights the faulty assumptions, logic and complete untenability of the missionaries' position.
- Does The Qur'an Say "Old Age"?: A Lexical Enquiry
- Jesus' Birth, Ministry And Alleged Crucifixion: Unresolved Chronological Controversy
Injīl (Gospel) In The Time Of Moses?
Unaware of the stylistic features of the Qur'an, the Christian missionaries have mistakenly claimed there is a reference to the Gospel during the time of Moses. A specific stylistic feature of the Qur'an called idraj or "insertion" of a comment is discussed along with a number of explanatory examples, highlighting the striking interactive, engaging manner of the Qur'anic discourse, moving to and fro between expressive, conative and cognitive communicative functions.
And No One Had The Name Yahya (= John?) Before: A Linguistic & Exegetical Enquiry Into Qur'an 19:7
- Is The Name John Linguistically Equivalent To Yahya?
- The Meaning Of The Name Yahya
- The Mandaeans - "The Christians Of St. John"
- Wa hananan min ladunna.... : Attributes Of Yahya As Mentioned In The Qur'an 19:13
- Exegesis Of Verse 19:7
Prophet Muhammad's Night Journey To Al-Masjid Al-Aqsa - The Farthest Mosque
- What Is A Masjid?
- Al-Masjid Al-Aqsa: A Place For Prostration For Jews
- Yet Another Problem!
- Appendix: Who Turned The Temple Mount Into A Garbage Dump?
Was ‘Uzayr (Ezra) Called The Son Of God?
Mary, Sister Of Aaron?
Mary & Tri-unity
Joseph, Moses & The Rulers Of Egypt (Short article. For details see the article above)
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