The Text Of The Qur'an

The primary source of the missionaries' argument is at Answering Islam.We have also retained their pattern so as to facilitate the identification of rebuttals.

The Qur'anic Manuscripts

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What About Changes In The Qur'an After `Uthmanic Recension?

Jamc al-Qur'an: An Exposition Of John Gilchrist's Deceptive Methodology

  1. The Qur'an, Jeffery & Missionaries: What Does Jeffery Actually Say?
  2. Al-Hajjaj, Kitab al-Masahif & Gilchrist

cAbdullah Ibn Sâd Ibn Abî Sarh: Where Is the Truth?

  1. Apostacy Of Ibn Sarh
  2. cUlum al-Qur'an & Revelation
  3. What Does Sirah Of al-Iraqî Actually Say?
  4. Discussion
Was There A Change In The Qur'an After `Uthmanic Recension?

Did al-Hajjaj Change The Qur'an?

  1. The Report In Kitab al-Masahif Of Ibn Abi Dawud
  2. Hadith Criticism Of The Report: The Study of Isnad
  3. Hadith Criticism Of The Report: The Study of Matn
  4. The Christian Polemical Sources: Letter Of Leo III & `Abd al-Masih al-Kindi
  5. Conclusions
Rectitation Of The Qur'an In Various Qiraa'aat

Discussion and recitation of the Qur'an in various Qiraa'aat is here.

Versions Of The Qur'an?

  1. Revelation Of The Qur'an In Seven Ahruf
  2. Difference Between Ahruf & Qiraa'aat
  3. Conditions For The Validity Of Different Qiraa'aat
  4. The Chain of Narration Of Different Qiraa'aat
  5. Hafs & Warsh Qiraa'aat: Are They Different Versions Of The Qur'an?
  6. Recitation Of The Qur'an In Hafs, Warsh & Other Qiraa'aa
  7. Printed Edition Of The Qur'an In Various Qiraa'aat
  8. Books On Mutawatir Qiraa'aat

The Qiraa'aat Identified In Qur'anic Manuscripts

Reply To Mr. Samuel Green's "The Seven Readings Of The Qur'an"

  1. Introduction
  2. Qiraa'aat Or 'Variant' Readings?
  3. Are Qiraa'aat Due To The Lack Of Vowel & Diacritical Points In The Early Qur'ans?
  4. Masahif Surprises?
  5. The Abuse of Brockett's Material On Qiraa'aat
  6. No Books On Mutawatir Readings Available?
  7. Conclusions
  8. Variant Readings Of The New Testament: Their Origin & Significance
  9. Critical Editions & The Methodlogies
  10. Conclusions
The Two Shi'ite Surahs?

Surah al-Walayah & Surah al-Nurayn: Their Authenticity & Literary Style
  1. The Shi'ite Sources
  2. Surah al-Walayah & al-Nurayn: Their History & Studies On Them
  3. Do These Surahs Exist In The Early Codices Of The Companions?
  4. Conclusions
Are Not There Any Grammatical Errors?

Responses To The Grammatical Errors In The Qur'an

Grammatical Shift For The Rhetorical Purposes: Iltifât And Related Features In The Qur'an , M A S Abdel Haleem, Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, 1992, Volume LV, Part 3.

This article deals with the misunderstandings of various Orientalists on the issue of grammatical shifts arising in Arabic rhetoric; some them even called these linguistic features as linguistic defects in the Qur'an. Notable of them are the works of Theodor Nöldeke, Bell and Watt, Rudi Paret and John Burton.

Sudden Change In Person & Number: Neal Robinson On Iltifât, Neal Robinson, Discovering The Qur'an: A Contemporary Approach To A Veiled Text (1996, SCM Press Ltd.). The chapter is "The Dynamics Of The Qur'anic Discourse", [pp. 245-252].

This article is packed with some examples taken from the above work on Iltifât by M A S Abdel Haleem.

Between Grammar And Rhetoric (Balâghah): A Look At Qur'an 2:217, Mustansir Mir, Islamic Studies, 1990, Volume 29, No. 3. pp. 277-285.

The article deals with various problems raised by the verse 2:217 concerning the case ending of the phrase wa'l-masjidi 'l-harâmi in the verse. Rudi Paret has called this verse as 'rough' (perhaps taking a clue from the work of Theodor Nöldeke). Is it an issue of grammar or balâghah?

Orientalists' View About The Arab Grammarians

How Did The Qur'an Influence The Interpretation Of The Jewish Bible?

What About The Scribal Errors?

Are There Scribal Errors In The Qur'an?

  1. The Rise & Development Of The Qur'anic Script
  2. The Alleged Scribal Errors
  3. The Qur'anic Orthography

Qur'anic Orthography: The Written Representation Of The Recited Text Of The Qur'an

The Qur'an Originally In Syriac?

'Review' Of Die syro-aramäische Lesart des Koran: Ein Beitrag zur Entschlüsselung der Koransprache ('Christoph Luxenberg', 2000, Das Arabische Buch: Berlin) By Angelika Neuwirth ("Qur'an and History - A Disputed Relationship. Some Reflections on Qur'anic History and History in the Qur'an", Journal of Qur'anic Studies, 2003, Volume V, Issue I, pp. 1-18).

The method (of Luxenberg) presupposes its very results: the facticity of a Syriac layer underlying the Arabic text. Much of his material relies on obvious circular argument.... This is an extremely pretentious hypothesis which is unfortunately relying on rather modest foundations.

Review Of Die syro-aramäische Lesart des Koran: Ein Beitrag zur Entschlüsselung der Koransprache ('Christoph Luxenberg', 2000, Das Arabische Buch: Berlin) By François de Blois (Journal of Qur'anic Studies, 2003, Volume V, Issue I, pp. 92-97).

[A]ny reader who wants to take the trouble to plough through Luxenberg's 'new reading' of any of the numerous passages discussed in this book will concede that the 'new reading' does not actually make better sense than a straight classical Arabic reading of the traditional text. It is a reading that is potentially attractive only in its novelty, or shall I say its perversity, not in that it sheds any light on the meaning of the book or on the history of Islam.... He is someone who evidently speaks some Arabic dialect, has a passable, but not flawless command of classical Arabic, knows enough Syriac so as to be able to consult a dictionary, but is innocent of any real understanding of the methodology of comparative Semitic linguistics. His book is not a work of scholarship but of dilettantism.

Textual Criticism Of The Bible & The Qur'an

Who Is Afraid Of Textual Criticism?

  1. Variant Readings In The Qur'an & In The Bible
    1. The Qur'an, Its Variant Readings & Islamic Scholarship
    2. The New Testament, Its Problems & The Critical Texts
  2. Textual Criticism & The Reaction Of The Church
    1. J Mill
    2. R Bentley
    3. J J Wettstein
    4. B F Westcott & J A Hort

The NT Manuscript Tradition Versus The Tradition Of The OT & The Qur'an

Miscellaneous: Refutations & Other Issues

Nevo & Negev Inscriptions: The Use & Abuse Of The Evidence

  1. Introduction
  2. Background
  3. The Use & Abuse Of The Evidence
  4. Early Islamic Architecture
  5. Conclusions

Burton, Wansbrough & 'Logic' Of Christian Missionaries

On Pre-Islamic Poetry & The Qur'an

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