Arabic Graffito On The Darb Zubayda Caravan Route, 52 AH / 672 CE

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First Composed: 22nd November 2005

Last Modified: 15th April 2013

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Assalamu ʿalaykum wa rahamatullahi wa barakatuhu:




Figure: (a) Inscription, (b) copy of the original and (c) its content.


52 AH / 672 CE.




The translation of the inscription is:

  1. O Allah grant pardon to Hadyah
  2. bin ʿAlī bin Hinaydah, and
  3. written in the year fifty two.


This inscription was found on the Darb Zubayda caravan route at al-Khashna during an archaeological survey in 1970s. The inscription was read correctly from 56 AH to 52 AH.[3]


Al-Khasna, Darb Zubayda, Saudi Arabia.

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[1] A. H. Sharafaddin, "Some Islamic Inscriptions Discovered On The Darb Zubayda", Atlal (The Journal Of Saudi Arabian Archaeology), 1977, Volume 1, pp. 69-70, Plate 50.

[2] B. Gruendler, The Development Of The Arabic Scripts: From The Nabatean Era To The First Islamic Century According To The Dated Texts, 1993, Harvard Semitic Series No. 43, Scholars Press: Atlanta (GA), p. 154.

[3] ʿA. I. Ghabban (Trans. & Remarks by R. G. Hoyland), "The Inscription Of Zuhayr, The Oldest Islamic Inscription (24 AH/AD 644–645), The Rise Of The Arabic Script And The Nature Of The Early Islamic State", Arabian Archaeology And Epigraphy, 2008, Volume 19, p. 217, footnote 16.

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