P. Vindob. A 11191 – A Papyrus About Debt Settlement, 57 AH / 676-677 CE

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First Composed: 24th August 2012

Last Updated: 25th January 2016

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Figure: (a) Picture of the papyrus and (b) its content. [] encloses letters supplied to fill a lacuna.


57 AH / 676-677 CE.[1]


13.5 cm x 14.5 cm.

Accession No.

P. Vindob. A 11191


The translation of text is given below.

  1. Until the end of (year) fifty [-seven ...
  2. ] to Amjad and Zayd b. Istiḥl(?) [...]
  3. ] ... testified [[... b .... and ... b.]] [...]
  4. ] two hundred [...] until the end of (year) fifty-seven. Their ⅓ part in Ḥawl.
  5. ] ... writing.
  6. ] dinars in the jurisdiction of believers until the end of (year) (fifty)-seven
  7. ] to Amjad and Zayd b.
  8. Istiḥl(?)] b. ʿUbayd from Banū Zuḥayn.
  9. ] this is due by Šara'iḥ b. Maʿlū[m?].


Written in black ink. Spots as distinguished above certain letters should not be taken diacritic points. Part of the line 3 has been deliberately erased, probably after the debt settlement.

A number of these readings are disputed. Most significant amongst these is the reading that identifies a hitherto unattested dating system, namely, qaḍāʾ al-muʾminīn, the "jurisdiction of the believers". Bruning proposes this should be read as "in accordance with the procedure of the believers" being an early attestation of a validity clause relating to the aforementioned financial transaction.[2] Also see documents from 42 AH and c. 44 AH mentioning sunnat qaḍāʾ al-muʾminīn and a shorter variant sunnatan, respectively.


The Austrian National Museum, Vienna.

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[1] Y. Ragib, "Une Ère Inconnue D'Égypte Musulmane: L'ère De La Juridiction Des Croyants", Annales Islamologiques, 2007, Volume 41, pp. 187-207, esp. pp. 201-204.

[2] J. Bruning, "A Legal Sunna In Dhikr Ḥaqqs From Sufyanid Egypt", Islamic Law And Society, 2015, Volume 22, pp. 352-374.

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