Codex Topkapı Sarayı Medina 1a - A Qurʾān Located At Topkapı Sarayı Museum, Istanbul, From 1st/ 2nd Century Hijra
© Islamic Awareness, All Rights Reserved.
First Composed: 12th June 2013
Last Updated: 8th August 2021
Assalamu ʿalaykum wa rahamatullahi wa barakatuhu:
Figure 1: Codex Topkapı Sarayı Medina 1a. HAND A: (a) Folio 97a, Sūrah al-Aʿrāf, verses 20-28. (b) Folio 99a, Sūrah al-Aʿrāf, verses 44-51. HAND B: (c) Folio 115a, Sūrah al-Anfāl, verses 60-66. (d) Folio 116a, Sūrah al-Anfāl, verses 72-75 to Sūrah Tawbah, verses 1-3. HAND C: (e). Folio 125a, Sūrah Tawbah, verses 115-120. (f) Folio 127a, Sūrah Yūnus, verses 13-20. HAND D: (g) Folio 177a, Sūrah al-Kahf, verses 21-26. (h) Folio 185a, Sūrah Maryam, verses 24-32. HAND E: (i) Folio 234a, Sūrah al-Shuʿarā, verses 158-171. (j) Folio 235a, Sūrah al-Shuʿarā, verses 183-191. HAND F: (k) Folio 288a, Sūrah al-Ṣāffāt, verses 121-147. (l) Folio 289a, Sūrah al-al-Ṣāffāt, verses 169-182 to Sūrah Ṣād, verses 1-5.
Late 1st / early 2nd century of hijra.
Medina 1a / Topkapı Sarayı Müzesi M1
Size & Folios
Size: 34-38 cm x 27-28.5 cm.
Total number of folios: 391. This constitutes ~100% of the total text of the Qurʾān, including two folios written in a latter hand. The figure was arrived from the facsimile edition published by Dr. Tayyar Altikulaç in the year 2020. Most of the folios from this codex are also available at the Gotthelf-Bergsträßer-Filmarchiv.
Topkapı Sarayı Medina 1a is the earliest complete copy of the Qurʾān. Based on the distribution of regional variants, Sidky hypothesises this manuscript may have been copied from multiple exemplars.
History Of The Manuscript
During the siege of Madinah in World War I, the Ottoman caliphate appointed Fahreddin Paşa (d. 1948) as commander of the Ḥijāz expeditionary forces. After the decision to partially evacuate the city had been made, the question arose as to status of the precious objects / sacred relics contained in the Prophet's Mosque. On the 25th May 1917, under the protection of 2,000 soldiers, the sacred relics comprising 30 chests were transported by rail for safekeeping in Istanbul - amongst which was Codex Topkapı Sarayı Medina 1a. Following the end of World War 1, the Treaty of Versailles was signed by the Allied powers and Germany. According to Section II, Special Provisions, Article 246, Germany was to return to King Hussein (d. 1931) who had opposed Paşa, “the original Koran of the Caliph Othman” removed by Turkish authorities and then believed to be gifted to Germany. According to Michael Marx of Corpus Coranicum, whether “the original Koran of the Caliph Othman” mentioned in the Treaty of Versailles is Codex Topkapı Sarayı Medina 1a remains undecided, primarily owing to a lack of corroborating Turkish documentation.
Significant for Marx investigation, Altikulaç confirms Medina 1a was indeed part of the consignment of precious objects conveyed to the Topkapı Sarayı Müzesi (Topkapı Sarayı Museum) in 1917 by Paşa and that an inventory of items conducted between 1924 and 1926 confirmed that Medina 1a was still present at Topkapi Sarayi Museum - the same decade that Bergsträsser photographed Medina 1a at Topkapı Sarayı Museum. As an aside, all the Qurʾān’s of Uthmān we are aware of have been written in a uniform script style, none of which are considered to be the oldest forms of ḥijāzī. It seems that when these attributions became popular, aesthetic considerations held a degree of concern. Medina 1a is written in a variety of script styles and lacks uniformity of appearance. Marx mentions another manuscript photographed by Bergsträsser at Topkapı Sarayı Museum, Medina 1b, and wonders whether this could be the Qurʾān mentioned in Article 246. Unfortunately we do not yet know the history of this manuscript. Nevertheless a list of items prepared at the behest of King Hussein that were removed by the Turkish authorities differentiates between “a Kuran” and “Parts of the Kuran”, the former apparently whole copies. Unknown to Marx at the time of writing, Medina 1a is a complete copy of the Qurʾān, with Bergsträsser photographing 308 of the 391 folios. Medina 1b is partial copy of the Qurʾān consisting of 133 folios and was photographed in full by Bergsträsser at Topkapı Sarayı Museum.
The earliest photograph of this manuscript appeared in Bergsträsser and Pretzl's Die Geschichte Des Qorāntexts in 1936. However, the genesis of the study of this manuscript in the Western world goes back to Theodor Nöldeke, whose book Geschichte Des Qorān was considered as a landmark of philological scholarship of the Qurʾān. Nöldeke's successors Gotthelf Bergsträsser and Otto Pretzl developed the project for creating a philological critical study of the Qurʾān. Armed with the newly developed first transportable Leica photographic camera and Agfa film roll, Bergsträsser travelled the Muslim world to take pictures of Arabic texts, including the Qurʾānic manuscripts such as codex Topkapı Sarayı Medina 1a. He died, quite young, in the year 1933 and left behind an archive that was lost from sight after World War II by a combination of silence of his successor Anton Spitaler (d. 2003) and rumours of the destruction of the material in the bombing of 1944.
How big was the archive originally collected by Bergsträsser and Pretzl? Muhammad Hamidullah, who had met Pretzl when the latter came to Paris to collect photocopies of the Qurʾānic manuscripts available in the libraries there, says that it had the photographs of "42,000 copies (or folios?) of the Qur'an" and that "they are collating them". Hamidullah adds that Pretzl also issued a "provisional report" which said that occasional mistakes of the copyists were found in these manuscripts but "no textual differences" from the official text were seen.
Script & Ornamentation
Ḥijāzī and kufic.
In terms of script style this is perhaps one of the most intriguing early manuscripts of the Qurʾān published so far. There are at least four different hands and perhaps as many as six. With the exception of the final hand, the manuscript is penned in differing forms of ḥijāzī script all of which confess acquaintance with kufic tendencies from the Umayyad period, evidenced by the uniformity and regularity of their appearance and the overall presentation of the page. Sharing the same script style as Marcel 11, 13, 15 + Arabe 330c (Umayyad Codex of Fusṭāṭ, same manuscript) and TIEM ŞE 321, it is the final hand (herein H and F) of Medina 1a which has the most potential to shed light on the milieux in which this manuscript was produced. Fortunately, the Umayyad Codex of Fusṭāṭ has been precisely described in the literature, marking it out from this small group of special manuscripts. In terms of palaeography, François Déroche summarises the salient characteristics of the script heralded by the Umayyad Codex of Fusṭāṭ, showing its close affinity with the manuscripts just mentioned as well as the milestones of ʿAbd al-Malik. The final hand of Medina 1a fits neatly into this group of scripts, O.Ib according to the typology of Déroche, and is now an additional substantial piece of evidence contributing towards our knowledge and understanding of Umayyad bookhands (Figure 2). Based primarily on palaeographic and art historical criteria, Alain George and Barry Flood date the Umayyad Codex of Fusṭāṭ to the late 1st century hijra with George stating the script antedates Codex Ṣanʿāʾ 20-33.1, itself dated to the late 1st century hijra (c. 705-715 CE). Earlier on, Déroche preferred a slightly wider range of dates that extended into the first decades of the second century of hijra / 8th century CE, still belonging to the Umayyad period. Latterly, he opined this copy may have been one of those that were sent by al-Ḥajjāj (died 95 AH / 714 CE) to many cities including Fusṭāṭ that contained reformed orthography.
Figure 2: Comparison of consonant shapes in Codex Topkapı Sarayı Medina 1a with Marcel 11, 13, 15, and BNF Arabe 330c (Umayyad Codex of Fusṭāṭ), TIEM ŞE 321, and milestones of ʿAbd al-Malik b. Marwan.
Given this was once a complete Qurʾān consisting of almost 400 folios, it is almost certain a wealthy patron commissioned its production, though it seems expansive illumination and ornamentation were not key concerns, or their inclusion was not deemed economical or cost effective. Unlike the Umayyad Codex of Fusṭāṭ and TIEM ŞE 321, there are no precisely executed elaborate ornamental bands between sūrahs that echo the decorative elements of the Dome of the Rock and other Umayyad structures. There are basic line art and simple geometric patterns based on circular, square and rectangular shapes, variously connected and inked in different colours, giving the appearance of chain / ribbon like structures. Sometimes there is no decoration, sometimes the text is headed by the name of the sūrah. There is no uniform system for indicating / decorating verse separators and some have clearly been erased. In general single verse separators are indicated by dashes / dots arranged as a vertical or slanting line or in triangular form. Similarly where ten verse separators are indicated, they appear as a large circle surrounded by dots. The scribes of this manuscript did not regularly leave a large enough space between sūrahs that would have allowed for such decoration to be added at a later date. How should this ‘discrepancy’ be interpreted and can it provide any clues towards the dating of this manuscript? It used to be thought that early manuscripts of the Qurʾān without decoration preceded those similarly dated Qurʾāns showing ornamental decoration. This hypothesis was frustrated by the discovery of Codex Ṣanʿāʾ I which showed the presence of geometric sūrah separators in the scriptio inferior, which, though altogether less elaborate, showed a form of decoration that did not exist in the scriptio superior. In light of this observation, it cannot be stated that this manuscript should antedate the Umayyad Codex of Fusṭāṭ and/or TIEM ŞE 321 based on this criterion alone. The presence however, of at least three or as many as five different other hands may provide more decisive evidence. Adolf Grohmann studied this manuscript though he was limited to one ḥijāzī style folio. Based on similarities with dated first century Arabic papyri, Grohmann ascribed Medina 1a to the 1st century of hijra. Similarly, Michael Marx states that Medina 1a is from amongst the earliest manuscripts of the Qurʾān written in the ḥijāzī script though considering the manuscript as a whole it seems more accurate to ascribe it to a later stage of development.
The contents of the manuscript are tabulated below. The folio count given in the Table below is derived from the facsimile edition.
|Codex Medina 1a|
|Folios||Qur'anic Sūrah||Contents||Image Publication||Comments|
|1b - 23b||al-Baqarah||Complete||Altikulaç, 2020|
|23b - 43a||āl-ʿImrān||Complete||Altikulaç, 2020||Folios 24a, 24b; 33a, 33b, written in a later kufic hand.|
|43a - 63b||al-Nisā||Complete||Altikulaç, 2020|
|63b - 83a||al-Mā'idah||Complete||Altikulaç, 2020|
|83b - 96a||al-Anʿām||Complete||Altikulaç, 2020; Gotthelf-Bergsträßer-Filmarchiv (v. 60- )|
|96a - 110b||al-Aʿrāf||Complete||Altikulaç, 2020; Gotthelf-Bergsträßer-Filmarchiv|
|110b - 116a||al-Anfāl||Complete||Altikulaç, 2020; Gotthelf-Bergsträßer-Filmarchiv|
|116a - 126a||Tawbah||Complete||Altikulaç, 2020; Gotthelf-Bergsträßer-Filmarchiv|
|126a - 133a||Yūnus||Complete||Altikulaç, 2020; Gotthelf-Bergsträßer-Filmarchiv|
|133a - 140b||Hūd||Complete||Altikulaç, 2020; Gotthelf-Bergsträßer-Filmarchiv|
|141a - 148b||Yūsuf||Complete||Altikulaç, 2020; Gotthelf-Bergsträßer-Filmarchiv|
|148b - 152b||al-Rʿad||Complete||Altikulaç, 2020; Gotthelf-Bergsträßer-Filmarchiv|
|152b - 156b||Ibrāhīm||Complete||Altikulaç, 2020; Gotthelf-Bergsträßer-Filmarchiv|
|156b - 158b||al-Ḥijr||Complete||Altikulaç, 2020; Gotthelf-Bergsträßer-Filmarchiv|
|158b - 167b||al-Nahl||Complete||Altikulaç, 2020; Gotthelf-Bergsträßer-Filmarchiv|
|167b - 175b||al-Isrāʾ||Complete||Altikulaç, 2020; Gotthelf-Bergsträßer-Filmarchiv|
|175b - 183b||al-Kahf||Complete||Altikulaç, 2020; Gotthelf-Bergsträßer-Filmarchiv|
|183b - 188b||Maryam||Complete||Altikulaç, 2020; Gotthelf-Bergsträßer-Filmarchiv; M. Marx, 2011 (folios 184b, 185a)|
|189a - 198b||Ṭāhā||Complete||Altikulaç, 2020; Gotthelf-Bergsträßer-Filmarchiv; Nöldeke et al., 2013 (folios 195b, 196a)|
|198b - 203a||al-Anbiyā||Complete||Altikulaç, 2020; Gotthelf-Bergsträßer-Filmarchiv|
|203a - 207b||al-Ḥajj||Complete||Altikulaç, 2020; Gotthelf-Bergsträßer-Filmarchiv|
|207b - 212b||al-Muʾminūn||Complete||Altikulaç, 2020; Gotthelf-Bergsträßer-Filmarchiv|
|212b - 221a||al-Nūr||Complete||Altikulaç, 2020; Gotthelf-Bergsträßer-Filmarchiv|
|221a - 227b||al-Furqān||Complete||Altikulaç, 2020; Gotthelf-Bergsträßer-Filmarchiv|
|227b - 236b||al-Shuʿarā||Complete||Altikulaç, 2020; Gotthelf-Bergsträßer-Filmarchiv|
|237a - 244a||al-Naml||Complete||Altikulaç, 2020; Gotthelf-Bergsträßer-Filmarchiv|
|244a - 252a||al-Qaṣaṣ||Complete||Altikulaç, 2020; Gotthelf-Bergsträßer-Filmarchiv|
|252a - 259a||al-ʿAnkabūt||Complete||Altikulaç, 2020; Gotthelf-Bergsträßer-Filmarchiv|
|259a - 263a||al-Rūm||Complete||Altikulaç, 2020; Gotthelf-Bergsträßer-Filmarchiv|
|263a - 265b||Luqmān||Complete||Altikulaç, 2020; Gotthelf-Bergsträßer-Filmarchiv|
|265b - 267a||al-Sajdah||Complete||Altikulaç, 2020; Gotthelf-Bergsträßer-Filmarchiv|
|267a - 274a||al-Aḥzāb||Complete||Altikulaç, 2020; Gotthelf-Bergsträßer-Filmarchiv|
|274a - 278a||Sabʾ||Complete||Altikulaç, 2020; Gotthelf-Bergsträßer-Filmarchiv|
|278a - 281b||Fāṭir||Complete||Altikulaç, 2020; Gotthelf-Bergsträßer-Filmarchiv|
|281b - 285a||Yāsīn||Complete||Altikulaç, 2020; Gotthelf-Bergsträßer-Filmarchiv|
|285a - 289a||al-Ṣāffāt||Complete||Altikulaç, 2020; Gotthelf-Bergsträßer-Filmarchiv|
|289a - 292b||Ṣād||Complete||Altikulaç, 2020; Gotthelf-Bergsträßer-Filmarchiv|
|293a - 299a||al-Zumar||Complete||Altikulaç, 2020; Gotthelf-Bergsträßer-Filmarchiv|
|299a - 307a||Ghāfir||Complete||Altikulaç, 2020; Gotthelf-Bergsträßer-Filmarchiv|
|307a - 312a||Fussilat||Complete||Altikulaç, 2020; Gotthelf-Bergsträßer-Filmarchiv|
|312a - 316b||al-Shūra||Complete||Altikulaç, 2020; Gotthelf-Bergsträßer-Filmarchiv|
|316a - 321b||al-Zukhruf||Complete||Altikulaç, 2020; Gotthelf-Bergsträßer-Filmarchiv|
|321b - 323a||al-Dukhān||Complete||Altikulaç, 2020; Gotthelf-Bergsträßer-Filmarchiv|
|323a - 325b||al-Jāthiya||Complete||Altikulaç, 2020; Gotthelf-Bergsträßer-Filmarchiv|
|325b - 328b||al-Aḥqāf||Complete||Altikulaç, 2020; Gotthelf-Bergsträßer-Filmarchiv|
|328b - 331b||Muḥammad||Complete||Altikulaç, 2020; Gotthelf-Bergsträßer-Filmarchiv|
|331b - 334b||al-Fataḥ||Complete||Altikulaç, 2020; Gotthelf-Bergsträßer-Filmarchiv|
|334b - 336a||al-Ḥujurāt||Complete||Altikulaç, 2020; Gotthelf-Bergsträßer-Filmarchiv|
|336a - 338a||Qāf||Complete||Altikulaç, 2020; Gotthelf-Bergsträßer-Filmarchiv|
|338a - 340a||al-Dhāriyāt||Complete||Altikulaç, 2020; Gotthelf-Bergsträßer-Filmarchiv|
|340a - 342a||al-Ṭūr||Complete||Altikulaç, 2020; Gotthelf-Bergsträßer-Filmarchiv|
|342a - 343b||al-Najm||Complete||Altikulaç, 2020; Gotthelf-Bergsträßer-Filmarchiv|
|343b - 345b||al-Qamar||Complete||Altikulaç, 2020; Gotthelf-Bergsträßer-Filmarchiv|
|345b - 347a||al-Raḥmān||Complete||Altikulaç, 2020; Gotthelf-Bergsträßer-Filmarchiv|
|347a - 349a||al-Wāqiʿah||Complete||Altikulaç, 2020; Gotthelf-Bergsträßer-Filmarchiv|
|349a - 352a||al-Ḥadid||Complete||Altikulaç, 2020; Gotthelf-Bergsträßer-Filmarchiv|
|352a - 354b||al-Mujādilah||Complete||Altikulaç, 2020; Gotthelf-Bergsträßer-Filmarchiv|
|354b - 356b||al-Ḥashr||Complete||Altikulaç, 2020; Gotthelf-Bergsträßer-Filmarchiv|
|356b - 358b||al-Mumtaḥinah||Complete||Altikulaç, 2020; Gotthelf-Bergsträßer-Filmarchiv|
|358b - 359b||al-Ṣaff||Complete||Altikulaç, 2020; Gotthelf-Bergsträßer-Filmarchiv|
|359b - 360a||al-Jumuʿah||Complete||Altikulaç, 2020; Gotthelf-Bergsträßer-Filmarchiv|
|360a - 361a||al-Munāfiqūn||Complete||Altikulaç, 2020; Gotthelf-Bergsträßer-Filmarchiv|
|361a - 362b||al-Taghābūn||Complete||Altikulaç, 2020; Gotthelf-Bergsträßer-Filmarchiv|
|362b - 363b||al-Talāq||Complete||Altikulaç, 2020; Gotthelf-Bergsträßer-Filmarchiv|
|364a - 365a||al-Tahrīm||Complete||Altikulaç, 2020; Gotthelf-Bergsträßer-Filmarchiv|
|365a - 366b||al-Mulk||Complete||Altikulaç, 2020; Gotthelf-Bergsträßer-Filmarchiv|
|366b - 368a||al-Qalam||Complete||Altikulaç, 2020; Gotthelf-Bergsträßer-Filmarchiv|
|368a - 369b||al-Ḥaqqah||Complete||Altikulaç, 2020; Gotthelf-Bergsträßer-Filmarchiv|
|369b - 370b||al-Maʿārij||Complete||Altikulaç, 2020; Gotthelf-Bergsträßer-Filmarchiv|
|370b - 371b||Nūḥ||Complete||Altikulaç, 2020; Gotthelf-Bergsträßer-Filmarchiv|
|371b - 373a||al-Jinn||Complete||Altikulaç, 2020; Gotthelf-Bergsträßer-Filmarchiv|
|373a - 374a||al-Muzzammil||Complete||Altikulaç, 2020; Gotthelf-Bergsträßer-Filmarchiv|
|374a - 375b||al-Muddathir||Complete||Altikulaç, 2020; Gotthelf-Bergsträßer-Filmarchiv|
|375b - 376a||al-Qiyāmah||Complete||Altikulaç, 2020; Gotthelf-Bergsträßer-Filmarchiv|
|376a - 377b||al-Insān||Complete||Altikulaç, 2020; Gotthelf-Bergsträßer-Filmarchiv|
|377b - 378b||al-Mursalāt||Complete||Altikulaç, 2020; Gotthelf-Bergsträßer-Filmarchiv|
|378b - 379b||al-Nabāʾ||Complete||Altikulaç, 2020; Gotthelf-Bergsträßer-Filmarchiv|
|379b - 380b||al-Nāziʿāt||Complete||Altikulaç, 2020; Gotthelf-Bergsträßer-Filmarchiv|
|380b - 381a||al-ʿAbasa||Complete||Altikulaç, 2020; Gotthelf-Bergsträßer-Filmarchiv|
|381a - 381b||al-Takwīr||Complete||Altikulaç, 2020; Gotthelf-Bergsträßer-Filmarchiv|
|381b - 382a||al-Intifār||Complete||Altikulaç, 2020; Gotthelf-Bergsträßer-Filmarchiv|
|382a - 383a||al-Mutaffifīn||Complete||Altikulaç, 2020; Gotthelf-Bergsträßer-Filmarchiv|
|383a - 384a||al-Inshiqāq||Complete||Altikulaç, 2020; Gotthelf-Bergsträßer-Filmarchiv|
|384a - 384b||al-Burūj||Complete||Altikulaç, 2020; Gotthelf-Bergsträßer-Filmarchiv|
|384b - 385a||al-Tāriq||Complete||Altikulaç, 2020; Gotthelf-Bergsträßer-Filmarchiv|
|385a||al-ʿAlā||Complete||Altikulaç, 2020; Gotthelf-Bergsträßer-Filmarchiv|
|385a - 385b||al-Ghāshīyah||Complete||Altikulaç, 2020; Gotthelf-Bergsträßer-Filmarchiv|
|385b - 386b||al-Fajr||Complete||Altikulaç, 2020; Gotthelf-Bergsträßer-Filmarchiv|
|386b - 387a||al-Balad||Complete||Altikulaç, 2020; Gotthelf-Bergsträßer-Filmarchiv|
|387a||al-Shams||Complete||Altikulaç, 2020; Gotthelf-Bergsträßer-Filmarchiv|
|387b||al-Layl||Complete||Altikulaç, 2020; Gotthelf-Bergsträßer-Filmarchiv|
|387b - 388a||al-Ḍuḥa||Complete||Altikulaç, 2020; Gotthelf-Bergsträßer-Filmarchiv|
|388a||al-Sharḥ||Complete||Altikulaç, 2020; Gotthelf-Bergsträßer-Filmarchiv|
|388a||al-Ṭīn||Complete||Altikulaç, 2020; Gotthelf-Bergsträßer-Filmarchiv|
|388a - 388b||al-ʿAlaq||Complete||Altikulaç, 2020; Gotthelf-Bergsträßer-Filmarchiv|
|388b||al-Qadr||Complete||Altikulaç, 2020; Gotthelf-Bergsträßer-Filmarchiv|
|388b - 389a||al-Bayyinah||Complete||Altikulaç, 2020; Gotthelf-Bergsträßer-Filmarchiv|
|389a - 389b||al-Zalzalah||Complete||Altikulaç, 2020; Gotthelf-Bergsträßer-Filmarchiv|
|389b||al-ʿAdiyāt||Complete||Altikulaç, 2020; Gotthelf-Bergsträßer-Filmarchiv|
|389b - 390a||al-Qāriʿah||Complete||Altikulaç, 2020; Gotthelf-Bergsträßer-Filmarchiv|
|390a||al-Takāthur||Complete||Altikulaç, 2020; Gotthelf-Bergsträßer-Filmarchiv|
|390a||al-ʿAsr||Complete||Altikulaç, 2020; Gotthelf-Bergsträßer-Filmarchiv|
|390a||al-Humazah||Complete||Altikulaç, 2020; Gotthelf-Bergsträßer-Filmarchiv|
|390a - 390b||al-Fīl||Complete||Altikulaç, 2020; Gotthelf-Bergsträßer-Filmarchiv|
|390b||al-Quraysh||Complete||Altikulaç, 2020; Gotthelf-Bergsträßer-Filmarchiv|
|390b||al-Māʿun||Complete||Altikulaç, 2020; Gotthelf-Bergsträßer-Filmarchiv|
|390b||al-Kawthar||Complete||Altikulaç, 2020; Gotthelf-Bergsträßer-Filmarchiv|
|390b - 391a||al-Kafirūn||Complete||Altikulaç, 2020; Gotthelf-Bergsträßer-Filmarchiv|
|391a||al-Naṣr||Complete||Altikulaç, 2020; Gotthelf-Bergsträßer-Filmarchiv|
|391a||al-Masad||Complete||Altikulaç, 2020; Gotthelf-Bergsträßer-Filmarchiv|
|391a||al-Ikhlās||Complete||Altikulaç, 2020; Gotthelf-Bergsträßer-Filmarchiv|
|391a - 391b||al-Falaq||Complete||Altikulaç, 2020; Gotthelf-Bergsträßer-Filmarchiv||Part of the text worn out|
|391b||al-Nās||Complete||Altikulaç, 2020; Gotthelf-Bergsträßer-Filmarchiv|
Topkapı Sarayı Museum, Istanbul (Turkey).
 F. E. Karatay, Topkapı Sarayı Müzesi Kütüphanesi Arapça Yazmalar Kataloǧu, 1962, Volume 1 (Kur'an, Kur'an Ilimleri, Tefsirler. No. 1-2171), Topkapı Sarayı Museum: Istanbul (Turkey), pp. 1-2. The salient details given in the catalogue include: 391 folios on parchment, 32 cm x 24 cm, 15-19 lines per page, 2nd - 3rd century AH / 8th - 9th century CE.
 T. Altikulaç, Mushaf- I Şerîf (Topkapı Sarayı Müzesi Kütüphanesi, Medine nr. 1), 2020, Volumes I and II, Organization of the Islamic Conference Research Centre for Islamic History, Art and Culture: Istanbul (Turkey).
 H. Sidky, "On The Regionality Of Qurʾānic Codices", Journal of the International Qur’anic Studies Association, 2020, Volume 5, Number 1, p. 178. Michael Marx has also noted the mixed Medinian / Syrian regionality. See M. Marx, "Le Coran d’‘Uthmān Dans Le Traité De Versailles", Comptes Rendus Des Séances De l'Académie Des Inscriptions Et Belles-Lettres, 2011, Volume 155, Number 1, p. 447.
 M. Strohmeier, "Fakhri (Fahrettin) Paşa And The End Of Ottoman Rule In Medina (1916-1919)", Turkish Historical Review, 2013, Volume 4, pp. 192-223.
 T. Altikulaç, Mushaf- I Şerîf (Topkapı Sarayı Müzesi Kütüphanesi, Medine nr. 1), 2020, Volume I, op. cit., p. 19.
 See the Wikipedia entry for Treaty of Versailles.
 M. Marx, "Le Coran d’‘Uthmān Dans Le Traité De Versailles", Comptes Rendus Des Séances De l'Académie Des Inscriptions Et Belles-Lettres, 2011, op. cit., pp. 431-454.
 T. Altikulaç, Mushaf- I Şerîf (Topkapı Sarayı Müzesi Kütüphanesi, Medine nr. 1), 2020, Volume I, op. cit., p. 19.
 M. Marx, "Le Coran d’‘Uthmān Dans Le Traité De Versailles", Comptes Rendus Des Séances De l'Académie Des Inscriptions Et Belles-Lettres, 2011, op. cit., p. 451.
 ibid., p. 434.
 F. E. Karatay, Topkapı Sarayı Müzesi Kütüphanesi Arapça Yazmalar Kataloǧu, 1962, Volume 1 (Kur'an, Kur'an Ilimleri, Tefsirler. No. 1-2171), op. cit., p. 1. The salient details given in the catalogue include: Inventory number M3, 133 folios on parchment, 26 cm x 35.5 cm, 14 lines per page, 1st - 2nd century AH / 7th - 8th century CE.
 G. Bergsträsser & O. Pretzl, Die Geschichte Des Qorāntexts, 1936, Dritter Teil, Lieferung 3, Dieterich'sche Verlagsbuchhandlung: Leipzig, Tafel VIII, Abbildung 10.
 M. Marx, "»The Koran According To Agfa« Gotthelf-Bergsträßers Archiv Der Koranhandschrift", Trajekte - Zeitschrift Des Zentrums Für Literatur- Und Kulturforschung, 2009, Volume 19, pp. 25-29.
 M. Marx, "The Lost Archive, The Myth Of Philology, And The Study Of The Qur'an", Wall Street Journal, 2008, 12th January, available online.
 A. Jeffery, The Qur'an As Scripture, 1952, Russell F. Moore Company Inc.: New York (USA), p. 103.
The present writer was collaborating with the late Professor Bergstrasser on such a project, and a beginning had been made on both the connected problems. The writer has gone through all the printed literature and a good deal of MSS material to collect all the variant readings. Bergstrasser established at Munich a Qur'anic Archive in which he commenced to gather the photographs of all early Qur'anic MSS, and of all masoretic material connected therewith. After his untimely death this Archive was continued and developed by his successor Otto Pretzl, but Pretzl was killed outside Sebastopol during this late War, and the whole of the Archive at Munich was destroyed by bomb action and by fire, so that the gigantic task has to be started over again from the beginning.
Also see idem., "Progress In The Study Of The Qur'an Text", The Moslem World, 1935, Volume 25, pp. 11-14.
 M. Hamidullah, Khutubat-e-Bahawalpur, 1401 AH, Islamic University, Bahawalpur (Pakistan), pp. 15-16.
 ibid. An indirect confirmation of this "provisional report" comes from Arthur Jeffery who compared the ʿUthmanic text from the "uncanonical" readings of Ibn Masʿud and Ubayy ibn Kʿab :
Bergsträsser in his preliminary collection of the uncanonical readings of Ibn Masʿud and Ubai made an attempt to estimate the value of these two texts as compared with the ʿUthmanic text. With increase of material one feels less inclined to venture on such a judgement of value.
See A. Jeffery, Materials For The History Of The Text Of The Qur'an: The Old Codices, 1937, E. J. Brill: Leiden, p. 16.
 F. Déroche, "Colonnes, Vases Et Rinceaux Sur Quelques Enluminures D'Époque Omeyyade", Comptes Rendus Des Séances / Académie Des Inscriptions & Belles-Lettres, 2004 (published 2006), pp. 227-264. F. Déroche, "A Qurʾanic Script From Umayyad Times: Around The Codex Of Fustat", in A. George & A. Marsham, Power, Patronage And Memory In Early Islam: Perspectives On Umayyad Elites, 2018, Oxford University Press: New York (USA), pp. 69-80 and Fig. 3.1.
 ibid., pp. 231-234.
 ibid., p. 233, Figure 2. This chart is based on the one produced by François Déroche with the addition of Medina 1a by us. Note that Déroche now considers BNF Arabe 330c and Marcel 11, 13, and 15 to be from the same manuscript, namely the Umayyad Codex of Fusṭāṭ. He has now also listed a selection of Umayyad Qurʾānic manuscripts in O I script, see F. Déroche, Qurʾans Of The Umayyads: A First Overview, 2014, Koninklijke Brill nv: Leiden (The Netherlands), pp. 102-105.
 F. Déroche, Qurʾans Of The Umayyads: A First Overview, 2014, op. cit., p. 80 & p. 98; F. Déroche, "A Qurʾanic Script From Umayyad Times: Around The Codex Of Fustat", in A. George & A. Marsham, Power, Patronage And Memory In Early Islam: Perspectives On Umayyad Elites, 2018, op. cit., pp. 75-76.
 A. George, The Rise Of Islamic Calligraphy, 2010, Saqi Books: London (UK), pp. 75-80 & p. 148; F. B. Flood, ''The Qur'an'', in H. C. Evans & B. Ratliff (Eds.), Byzantium And Islam: Age Of Transition 7th - 9th Century, 2012, Metropolitan Museum of Art: New York (USA), pp. 270-271.
 F. Déroche, La Transmission Écrite Du Coran Dans Les Débuts De L’Islam: Le Codex Parisino-Petropolitanus, 2009, Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden: The Netherlands, p. 154.
 F. Déroche, Qurʾans Of The Umayyads: A First Overview, 2014, op. cit., p. 96; F. Déroche, "A Qurʾanic Script From Umayyad Times: Around The Codex Of Fustat", in A. George & A. Marsham, Power, Patronage And Memory In Early Islam: Perspectives On Umayyad Elites, 2018, op. cit., p. 77.
 A. Grohmann, "The Problem Of Dating Early Qur'ans", Der Islam, 1958, Volume 33, Number 3, pp. 221-222. Speaking of the Gotthelf-Bergsträßer-Filmarchiv, Grohmann said, “The rich collection of photographs of old Qur'ans in the Bavarian Academy of Sciences in Munich would have been very useful ...” Fast forward sixty years later and scholars find themselves in a similar position! The project Corpus Coranicum is now making progress in publishing said manuscripts.
 M. Marx, "The Qur'an - The First Arabic Book", U. Franke, J. Gierlichs (Eds.) in collaboration with S. Vassilopoulou, L. Wagner, Roads Of Arabia - The Archaeological Treasures Of Saudi Arabia, 2011, Ernst Wasmuth Verlag: Tübingen / Berlin (Germany), pp. 199-201.
 ibid., p. 201.
 T. Nöldeke, F. Schwally, G. Bergsträßer, O. Pretzl (Ed. & Trans. W. H. Behn), The History Of The Qur'an, 2013, Texts And Studies On The Qur'an - Volume 8, Brill: Leiden & Boston, Tafel VIII.
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