To The Science Of Hadith
Awareness, All Rights Reserved.
Verdicts on the ahadith mentioned
in the Foreword
- Mutawatir, as declared by many scholars, including Ibn Taimiyyah,
Najm al-Din al-Iskandari (d. 981) and al-`Ijlouni (d. 1162). About this hadith,
al-Daraqutni said, "It is the most authentic one regarding the
virtues of any surah." It is related by al-Bukhari, Muslim and
- The following is the Sahih hadith of al-Bukhari, Muslim, al-Tirmidhi,
Ibn Majah and Ibn 'Asakir: "Verily, Allah has Ninety-Nine Names which
if a person safeguards them, he will enter the Garden." In some narrations
of this hadith
found in al-Tirmidhi, Ibn Majah, al-Hakim and others, the names
are listed at the end; however, at least three different listings are given,
e.g. one list being, "He is Allah, besides whom there is no other deity,
the Merciful, the Compassionate, ..., the Forbearing" while another is
"Allah, the Unique, the Absolute, ..., the One who has nothing like unto
Him." It is agreed that these latter narrations are Da`if,
and this is why al-Bukhari and Muslim did not include them in their
Al-Tirmidhi says in his Sunan, "This (version of the) hadith is
Gharib; it has been narrated from various routes on the authority
of Abu Hurairah, but we do not know of the mention of the Names in the numerous
narrations, except this one." Ibn Taimiyyah says, "Al-Walid (one
of the narrators of the hadith) related the Names from (the saying of) one of
his Syrian teachers ... specific mention of the Names is not from the words
of the Prophet (may Allah bless him and grant him peace), by the agreement
of those familiar with hadith."87
says in his Tafsir, under verse 180 of Surah al- A'raf, that these narrations
are Mudraj. Ibn Hajar takes a similar view in his commentary on Sahih
al-Bukhari. Various scholars have given different lists of 99
Names from their study of the Qur'an and Sunnah, including Ja`far
Sufyan b. 'Uyainah, Ibn Hazm, al-Qurtubi, Ibn Hajar and Salih b. `Uthaimin.
- Ibn Taimiyyah says, "It
is not from the words of the Prophet (may Allah bless him and grant him peace),
and there is no known isnad for it, neither Sahih nor Da`if";
(d. 794), Ibn Hajar, al-Suyuti and others agreed with him. Al-Qari says, "But
its meaning is correct, deduced from the statement of Allah, I have not created
the Jinn and Mankind, except to worship Me, i.e. to recognise/know me, as
(may Allah be pleased with them both) has explained." These statements
are mentioned by al-`Ijlouni, who adds, "This saying occurs often in
the words of the Sufis, who have relied on it and built upon it some of their
- Al-`Ijlouni says, "Al-Saghani (d.
650) said: Maudu`.
I say: But its meaning is correct, even if it is not a hadith."
no. 2123. `Ali al-Qari says, "But its meaning is correct,
for al-Dailami has related from Ibn `Abbas as Marfu`:
'that Jibril came to me and said: O Muhammad! Were it not for you, the Garden would not have
been created, and were it not for you, the Fire would not have been created',
and in the narration of Ibn 'Asakir: 'Were it not for you, the world would
not have been created'." Al-Albani also quotes al-Saghani's verdict, and comments on al-Qari's words thus,
"It is not appropriate to certify the correctness of its meaning without
establishing the authenticity of the narration from al-Dailami, which is something
I have not found any of the scholars to have addressed. Personally, although
I have not come across its isnad, I have no doubt about its weakness; enough
of an indication for us is that al-Dailami is alone in reporting it. As for
the narration of Ibn 'Asakir, Ibn al-Jauzi also related it in a long Marfu`
from Salman and said, 'It is Maudu`,
and al-Suyuti endorsed this in al-La'ali."89
- Sahih - related by al-Bukhari and Muslim.
- Al-`Ijlouni says, "Al-Ghazali
mentioned it in Ihya'
`Ulum al-Din with the wording, Allah
says, "Neither My heaven nor My earth could contain Me, but the soft,
humble heart of my believing slave can contain Me." Al-`Iraqi said in
his notes on Al-Ihya',
"I do not find a basis (i.e. isnad) for it", and al-Suyuti agreed
with him, following al-Zarkashi. Al-`Iraqi then said, "But in the hadith of
Abu 'Utbah in al-Tabarani there occurs: ... the vessels of your Lord
are the hearts of His righteous slaves, and the most beloved to Him are the
softest and most tender ones." Ibn Taimiyyah said, "It is mentioned
in the Israelite traditions, but there is no known isnad from the Prophet
(may Allah bless him and grant him peace) for it." Al-Sakhawi said in Al-Maqasid, following his Shaykh al-Suyuti in Al-
La'ali, "There is no known isnad
from the Prophet (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) for it, and its
meaning is that his heart can contain belief in Me, love of Me and gnosis
of Me. But as for the one who says that Allah incarnates in the hearts of
the people, then he is more of an infidel than the Christians, who specified
that to Christ alone. It seems that Ibn Taimiyyah's mention of Israelite tradition
refers to what Ahmad has
related in Al-Zuhd
from Wahb b.
Munabbih who said that Allah opened the heavens for Ezekiel
until he saw the Throne, so Ezekiel said, 'How Perfect are You! How Mighty
are You, O Lord!' So Allah said, 'Truly, the heavens and the earth were too
weak to contain Me, but the soft, humble heart of my believing slave contains
Me'." He also quoted from al-Zarkashi's writing that one of the scholars said that it is
a false hadith, fabricated by a renegade (from the religion),
and that it is most-often quoted by a preacher to the masses, `Ali
b. Wafa, for his own purposes, who says at the time of spiritual rapture and
dance, "Go round the House of your Lord." He further said that al-Tabarani
has related from Abu 'Utbah al- Khawlani as Marfu`,
"Truly, Allah has vessels from amongst the people of the earth, and the
vessels of your Lord are the hearts of his righteous slaves, and the most
beloved of them to Him are the softest and most tender ones"; in its
isnad is Baqiyyah b. al-Walid, a Mudallis, but he has clearly stated hearing the hadith."90
Al-Albani rates this last hadith mentioned as Hasan.91
- Al-Nawawi said, "It is
not established." Ibn Taimiyyah said, "Maudu`." Al-Sam'ani said, "It is not known as Marfu`,
but it is quoted as a statement of Yahya b. Mu`adh al-Razi." Al- Suyuti
endorsed al-Nawawi's words, and also said, "This hadith is
not authentic." Al- Fairozabadi said, "It is not a Prophetic statement,
although most of the people think it is a hadith,
but it is not authentic at all. In fact, it is only related in the Israelite
traditions: O Man! Know yourself: you will know your Lord." Ibn al-Gharas
said, after quoting al-Nawawi's verdict, "... but the books of the Sufis,
such as Shaykh
Muhi al-Din Ibn `Arabi and others, are filled with it, being quoted
like a hadith."
Ibn `Arabi also said, "This hadith,
although it is not proved by way of narration, is proved to us by way of Kashf ('unveiling',
while in a trance)."92 Regarding this methodology, al-Albani says, "Authenticating
by way of Kashf is a wicked innovation of the Sufis, and depending
upon it leads to the authentication of false, baseless ahadith ...
This is because, even at the best of times, Kashf is like opinion, which may be right or wrong - and
that is if no personal desires enter into it! We ask Allah to save us from
it, and from everything with which He is not pleased."93
- Sahih. Related by Malik in Al-Muwatta', al-Shafi`i in Al-Risalah (p. 110, Eng. trans.) and Muslim (1:382; Eng. trans.
1:272). This was the first of two questions which the Prophet (may Allah bless
him and grant him peace) put to a slave-girl to test her faith, the second
one being, "Who am I?" She answered, "Above the heaven"
and "You are the Messenger of Allah" respectively, to which he said,
"Free her, for she is a believer." Her first answer, which is found
in the Qur'an (67:16-17, the word fi can mean 'above/on', as in 6:11, 20:71
& 27:8), means that Allah is above and separate from His creation, not
mixed in with it, the erroneous belief which leads to worship of creation.
as stated by al-Saghani and others. Scholars differ as to whether its meaning
is correct or not, in what way, and to what extent.94 It is sometimes used to justify divisive, anti-Islamic
nationalism and patriotism!
- Sahih. Related by Malik as Mursal/Mu`allaq/Balaghat
(depending on choice of terminology), and related twice as Musnad by
The meaning of the hadith is contained in the Qur'an, in the mention of
the Book and Wisdom (2:129, 2:151, 2:231, 3:164, 4:113, 33:34 & 62:2);
says, "I have heard the most knowledgeable people about the Qur'an say
that the Wisdom is the Sunnah" (Al-Risalah, Eng. trans., p. 111).
- Sahih. Related by al-Tirmidhi, Ahmad, Ibn Abi `Asim, al-Hakim, al-Tabarani, al-Dailami and al-Tahawi.95
The phrase Ahl al-Bayt (members of the house) refers: (i) primarily to the
Prophet's wives (may Allah bless him and grant him peace), from the clear
context of the relevant verse of the Qur'an (33:33); (ii) to `Ali, Fatimah,
Hasan & Husain, from the "hadith of the garment" (cf. Sahih Muslim,
Book of the Virtues of the Companions). It is imbalanced and unjust to exclude
either of these categories from the hadith.
- A Sahih hadith related by Abu Dawud, al-Tirmidhi,
Ibn Majah & Ahmad, and well-known amongst the people. The fullest
narration is, "Abu Bakr will be in the Garden; `Umar will be in
the Garden; `Uthman will be in the Garden; `Ali
will be in the Garden; Talhah will be in the Garden; al-Zubair will be in the
Garden; `Abd al-Rahman b. 'Auf will be in the Garden; Sa'd b. Abi Waqqas
will be in the Garden; Sa`id b. Zaid will be in the Garden; Abu 'Ubaidah b. al-Jarrah
will be in the Garden."
- Related by Ishaq b. Rahawaih
and al-Baihaqi with a Sahih isnad as a statement of `Umar. It is also
collected by Ibn 'Adi and al-Dailami from Ibn `Umar as Marfu`,
but in its isnad is `Isa b. `Abdullah, who is weak. However, it is strengthened
by another narration of Ibn 'Adi, and also supported by the hadith in
that a man saw in a dream that Prophet (may Allah bless him and grant him
peace) was weighed against Abu Bakr, and was found to be heavier; then Abu
Bakr was weighed against everyone else ...96
- Related by al-Hakim, al-Tabarani
and others. It is also related by al-Tirmidhi with the wording, "I am the House of Wisdom,
and `Ali is its Door". Al-Daraqutni labelled the hadith
as mudtarib, both in isnad and text; al-Tirmidhi said
it is Gharib and Munkar; al-Bukhari said that it has no Sahih narration; Ibn Ma'in said that it is a baseless lie.
Similar dismissals of the hadith are reported from Abu Zur'ah, Abu Hatim
b. Sa'd. Al-Hakim declared the original hadith as
Sahih in isnad, but Ibn al-Jauzi regarded both versions
and al-Dhahabi agreed with him. Several of the later scholars,
including Ibn Hajar al-`Asqalani, Ibn Hajar al-Makki and al-Suyuti declared
it Hasan due to its various routes of narration. Al-`Ijlouni
says, "... none of this devalues the consensus of the Adherents to the
Sunnah from the Companions, the Successors and those after them, that the
best of the Companions overall is Abu Bakr, followed by `Umar ...", and quotes this view from Ibn `Umar
and `Ali himself, as recorded in Sahih al-Bukhari.97 Al-Albani declares the hadith to
- A Da`if
as stated by Ahmad b. Hanbal, Ibn `Abd al-Barr, al-Bazzar and many others. Ibn Hazm states
that not only is the isnad unsound, but the hadith cannot be true for two further reasons: (i) the
Companions were not infallible, and hence made mistakes, so it would be wrong
to say that following any of them leads to guidance; (ii) the comparison with
the stars is wrong, for not every star guides one through every journey! There
is a different, authentic comparison with the stars given in Sahih
Muslim: the Prophet (may Allah bless
him and grant him peace) said, "The stars are the custodians of the sky,
so when the stars depart, there will come to the sky what is promised for
it (i.e. on the Day of Judgment). I am the custodian of my Companions, so
when I depart, there will come to my Companions what is promised for them
(i.e. great trials and tribulations). My Companions are the custodians for
my Ummah, so when my Companions depart, there will come to my Ummah what is
promised for it (i.e. schisms, spread of innovations, etc.)." (4:1961,
Eng. trans. IV:1344)
- No isnad exists for this
al-Subki (d. 756) said, "It is not known to the scholars of Hadith,
and I cannot find an isnad for it, whether Sahih, Da`if,
It, along with the previous one, is often used to justify the following two
extremes: (i) blind following of the views of men, with no reference to the
Qur'an and Sunnah; (ii) conveniently following whichever scholar holds the
easiest view, or that most agreeable to one's desires, again without reference
to the fundamental sources.
- Numerous narrations of this
are found in the collections of Abu Dawud, al-Tirmidhi,
Ibn Majah, al-Hakim, Ahmad and others: they vary in being Sahih, Hasan, or Da`if,
but the hadith
is established. Among those who have authenticated this hadith are
al-Tirmidhi, al-Hakim, al-Shatibi, Ibn Taimiyyah, Ibn al-Qayyim, al-Dhahabi,
and al-`Iraqi. Most narrations mention the splitting-up of
the Jews and the Christians into seventy-one or seventy-two sects, all being
in the Fire except one, prior to mention of the Muslims dividing even more.
In some of the narrations, the Prophet (may Allah bless him and grant him
peace) describes the Saved Sect variously as "the Jama'ah (community,
congregation, main body)", "the largest body (al-sawad al-a'zam)"
and "that which follows what I and my Companions are upon." The
hadith does not mean that the majority of Muslims will
be in the Hellfire, for most of them ("the masses") are not involved
in intentional, divisive innovation; further, mention of the Fire does not
necessarily imply that the seventy-two sects will remain there forever, or
that those sects are disbelievers.
- Although the Mahdi is not
mentioned explicitly in the collections of al-Bukhari and Muslim, numerous Sahih ahadith, which are Mutawatir
in meaning, speak of the coming of the Mahdi, a man named Muhammad b.
and a descendant of the Prophet (may Allah bless him and grant him peace)
through Fatimah, who will be the Leader (Imam, Khalifah) of the Muslims, rule
for seven years and fill the world with justice and equity after it had been
filled with tyranny and oppression. He will also fight the Dajjal along with
Jesus son of Mary. The author, in his The Concept of the Mahdi among the Ahl
al-Sunnah, has named 37 scholars who collected ahadith about the Mahdi with their own isnads and 69
later scholars who wrote in support of the concept, compared to 8 scholars
who rejected the idea. The ahadith prophesying the Dajjal (False Christ), a one-eyed
man who will have miraculous powers and will be followed by the Jews, and
the return of Jesus Christ son of Mary (peace be upon them), who will descend
in Damascus and pray behind the Mahdi, kill the Dajjal at the gate of Lod
in Palestine, break the Cross, kill the Pig, marry and have children and live
for forty years before dying a natural death, are Mutawatir in meaning. They have been collected by al-Bukhari
and Muslim, as well as other traditionists.
- Mutawatir in meaning, and collected by al-Bukhari, Muslim
- Mutawatir in meaning, and collected by al-Bukhari, Muslim
and others. Mention of the inadmissibility of intercession on the Day of Judgment
in the Qur'an, e.g. 2:48 2:123, must be understood in the light of other verses,
e.g. 20:109 and Sahih ahadith. The reward of seeing Allah for the believers
is referred to in the Qur'an, e.g. 75:22-23 and 83:15. These ahadith
and those of the previous two categories were generally rejected by the classical
Mu'tazilah (Rationalists), as well by those influenced by them today, on one
or more of the following bases: (i) they contradict the Qur'an (in their view);
(ii) they contradict Reason (in their view), and (iii) they are ahad, not
Mutawatir, and hence not acceptable in matters of belief (a
flawed argument). Hence, the scholars who wrote the 'aqidah (creed) of the
Ahl al-Sunnah included these concepts in it, to confirm their denial of the
wrong ideas of the Mu'tazilah. Other authentic ahadith rejected by the Mu'tazilah are many, and include
those describing the Prophet's Mi'raj (ascension to the heavens), which are
again Mutawatir in meaning.
- The hadith with
this wording is Da`if,
but its meaning is contained in the hadith of Ibn Majah and al-Nasa'i that a man came to
the Prophet (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) and said, "O Messenger
of Allah! I intend to go on a (military) expedition, but I have come to ask
your advice." He said, "Is your mother alive?" He said, "Yes."
He said, "Then stay with her, for the Garden is under her feet."
This latter hadith
is declared to be Sahih by al-Hakim, al-Dhahabi and al-Mundhiri.99
- A Sahih hadith, collected by al-Bukhari, Muslim
- This hadith has
many chains of narration on the authority of more than a dozen Companions,
including twenty Successors apparently reporting from Anas alone. They are
collected by Ibn Majah, al-Baihaqi, al-Tabarani and others, but all of them are Da`if, according to Ahmad b. Hanbal, Ishaq b. Rahuwaih, Ibn `Abd al-Barr, al-Bazzar
and others, although some scholars authenticated a few of the chains. Al-Baihaqi
said that its text is mashhur while its isnad is Da`if,
while al-Hakim and Ibn al-Salah regarded it as a prime example of a mashhur hadith
which is not Sahih. However, it is regarded by later scholars of Hadith
as having enough chains of narration to be strengthened to the level of Hasan
or Sahih, a view which is stated by al-Mizzi, al-`Iraqi,
al-Suyuti and al-Albani.100
- This additional statement
is found in a few of the (weak) narrations of the previous hadith, and is declared as Maudu` by Ibn Hibban, Ibn al-Jauzi, al-Sakhawi and al-Albani.101
- Mentioned by al-Manjaniqi
in his collection of ahadith of older narrators reporting from younger ones,
on the authority of al-Hasan al-Basri. Al-Khatib al-Baghdadi said that it is Maudu` as a narration from the Prophet (may Allah bless him
and grant him peace), but that it is a statement of al-Hasan al-Basri.102
- Related as Marfu` by al-Baihaqi with a Da`if
isnad, according to al-`Iraqi. Ibn Hajar said that it is actually a saying of Ibrahim b.
Abi 'Ablah, a Successor.103
*NB: The scholars of hadith agree
that a Da`if
must not be attributed to the Prophet (may Allah bless him and grant him peace),
e.g. by saying, "The Prophet said: ...", even if the meaning is considered
to be correct or if it is actually the saying of a Muslim scholar, for that
would be a way of lying about the Prophet (may Allah bless him and grant him
- Ar. Sunnah: Way, Path, Tradition,
Example. See An Introduction
to the Sunnah by Suhaib Hasan
(Understanding Islam Series no. 5, published by Al-Qur'an Society), for Qur'anic
proofs of revelation besides the Qur'an, the importance of the Sunnah, and
a brief history of the collections of Hadith. See also Imam al-Shafi`'i's
Al-Risalah for the authoritative position of the Sunnah (Eng.
trans., pp. 109- 116).
- related by Imam Muslim in
the Introduction to his Sahih - see Sahih Muslim (ed. M.F. `Abdul Baqi, 5 vols., Cairo, 1374/1955), 1:15 &
Muslim bi Sharh an-Nawawi (18 vols.
in 6, Cairo, 1349), 1:87. The existing English translation of Sahih Muslim,
by `Abdul Hamid Siddiqi, does not contain this extremely valuable Introduction.
- Ibn Abi Hatim al-Razi,
Al-Jarh wa l-Ta'dil (8 vols., Hyderabad, 1360-1373), 1:20.
Muslim, 1:15. See Suhaib Hasan, Criticism of Hadith among
Muslims with reference to Sunan Ibn Maja
(Ta Ha publishers / Al-Qur'an Society, London, 1407/1986), pp. 15-17 for discussion
of this statement of Ibn Sirin.
- Remarks like these are exceptions
from the basic Islamic prohibition of backbiting (ghibah) another Muslim,
even if the statement is true. Such exceptions are allowed, even obligatory
in some cases, where general benefit to the Muslim public is at stake, such
as knowing which ahadith
are authentic. See e.g. Riyad
al-Salihin of al-Nawawi, Chapter
on Backbiting, for the justification for certain types of backbiting from
the Qur'an and Sunnah.
- Muhammad Adib
Lamahat fi Usul
al-Hadith (2nd ed., al-Maktab
al-Islami, Beirut, 1389), p. 143.
- Tahir b. Ahmad al-Jaza'iri, Taujih
al-Nazar ila Usul al-Nazar
(Maktaba 'Ilmiyyah, Madinah, N.D.), p. 68.
- Muhammad b.
Ma'rifah `Ulum al-Hadith
(ed. Mu'azzam Husain, Cairo, 1937), p. 17.
- Jalal al-Din al-Suyuti,
Tadrib al-Rawi (ed. A.A. Latif, 1st ed., Cairo, 1379/1959), 1:197.
Talkhis al-Mustadrak (printed with Mustadrak
al-Hakim, 4 vols., Hyderabad),
- Abu 'l-Fida' 'Imad al-Din
Ibn Kathir, Tafsir
al-Qur'an al-Azim (4 vols.,
Cairo, N.D.), 1:80.
- Yusuf b. `Abdullah
Ibn `Abdul Barr, Tajrid
al-Tamhid lima fi l-Muwatta' min al-Asanid
(Cairo, 1350), 1:2.
- al-Suyuti, 1:198.
- For the discussion in detail,
see al-Shafi`'i, Al-Risalah (ed. Ahmad Shakir, Cairo, 1358/1940, pp. 461-470; English translation:
M. Khadduri, 2nd ed., Islamic Texts Society, Cambridge, 1987, pp. 279-284,
where the Mursal hadith has been translated as "interrupted tradition").
- al-Suyuti, 1:199;
b. Mustafa al- Ghadamsi, Al-Mursal
min al-Hadith (Darif Ltd.,
London, N.D.), p.71.
- Ibn al-Qayyim, I'lam al-Muwaqqi'in
(2nd ed., 4 vols. in 2, Dar al-Fikr, Beirut, 1397/1977), 1:31.
- Ibn Hazm, Al-Ihkam fi Usul al-Ahkam (Matba'ah al-Sa'adah, Cairo, 1345), 2:135.
Shurut al-A'immah al-Khamsah
(ed. M.Z. al-Kauthari, Cairo, N.D.), p. 45.
- According to the different
interpretations of this verse, "they" here could refer to those
who stay behind, or those who go forth.
- al-Hakim, p.
- Al-Khatib al-Baghdadi,
Al-Kifayah fi `Ilm
al-Riwayah (Hyderabad, 1357), p. 387.
- ibid., pp. 411-413.
- Zain al-Din al-`Iraqi,
Al-Taqyid wa 'l-Idah
Sharh Muqaddimah Ibn al-Salah
(al-Maktabah al- Salafiyyahh, Madinah, 1389/1969), p. 72
- Ibn Taymiyyah, Minhaj al-Sunnah an-Nabawiyyah fi Naqd Kalam al-Shi'ah
wa 'l-Qadariyyah (al- Maktabah al-Amiriyyah,
Bulaq, 1322), 4:117.
(Maktab al-Matbu'at al- Islamiyyah, Halab, 1405), p. 40.
- al-Jaza'iri, p. 33.
- Ibn Hajar al-`Asqalani,
Sharh Nukhbah al-Fikr (ed. M. 'Aud & M.G. Sabbagh, Damascus, 1410/1990),
- al-Jaza'iri, p. 49; Muhammad
b. Isma`il al-Amir al-San`ani, Taudih
al-Afkar (2 vols. ed. M.M. `Abdul
Cairo, 1366), 2:405.
- al-Hakim, pp.
- al-`Iraqi, p. 268.
- al-`Iraqi, p. 96.
- Ibn Hajar, Tabaqat al-Mudallisin
(Cairo, 1322), p. 7f.
- al-`Iraqi, p. 98.
- al-Hakim, pp.
- ibid., p. 119.
- Ibn Kathir, Ikhtisar `Ulum al-Hadith
(ed. Ahmad Shakir,
2nd imp., Cairo, 1951), p. 57.
- al-Suyuti, 1:235;
M. A. Salih,
- ibid., 2:6.
- Ibn Kathir, Tafsir,
- Ibn Kathir, Ikhtisar,
- al-Suyuti, 1:248.
- al-Hakim, p.
- al-`Iraqi, p. 129f.
- al-Suyuti, 1:274.
- Ibn Kathir, Ikhtisar,
- Ibn `Abdul Barr, Al-Tamhid,
3:32, as quoted by Luqman al-Salafi, Ihtimam
al-Muhaddithin bi Naqd al-Hadith,
- Ibn Kathir, Ikhtisar,
- ibid., p. 87.
- Shams al-Din Muhammad b.
Fath al-Mughith Sharh
Alfiyyah al-Hadith li 'l-`Iraqi
(Lucknow, N.D.), 1:278.
- `Uthman b. `Abd al-Rahman al-Dimashqi Ibn al-Salah, `Ulum
al-Hadith (commonly known as
Muqaddimah, ed. al-Tabbakh, Halab, 1350), p. 116.
- `Ali b. `Abdullah b. Ja`far Ibn al-Madini,
Kitab al-'Ilal, p. 58. Ibn Hajar al-`Asqalani mentions that the Imams of Hadith
have agreed that al-Hasan al-Basri did not hear a single word from `Ali.
Muslim, 4:2149 (English transl., IV:1462,
- Ibn Taimiyyah, Majmu' Fatawa
(37 vols., ed. `Abd al-Rahman b. Qasim & his son Muhammad,
Riyadh, 1398), 18:18f. Ibn Taimiyyah mentions that Imam Muslim's authentication
of this hadith
is supported by Abu Bakr al-Anbari & Ibn al-Jauzi, whereas al-Baihaqi
supports those who disparaged it. Al-Albani says that it was Ibn al-Madini
who criticised it, whereas Ibn Ma'in did not (the latter was known to be very
strict, both of them were shaikhs of al-Bukhari).
He further says that the hadith is Sahih, and does not contradict the Qur'an, contrary to the
probable view of the scholars who criticised the hadith, since what is mentioned in the Qur'an is the
creation of the heavens and the earth in six days, each of which may be like
a thousand years, whereas the hadith refers to the creation of the earth only, in
days which are shorter than those referred to in the Qur'an (Silsilah al-Ahadith as-Sahihah, no. 1833).
- al-Shafi'i, p. 370f (Eng.
trans., pp. 239- 240).
- al-Nawawi, Muqaddimah,
- al-Tibi, al-Husain
b. `Abdullah, Al-Khulasah
fi Usul al-Hadith (ed. Subhi
al-Samarra'i, Baghdad, 1391), p. 36.
- ibid., p. 38.
- al-Nawawi, Muqaddimah,
- ibid., pp. 32-33.
- al-Albani, Silsilah al-Ahadith al-Sahihah, no. 62.
- al-Jaza'iri, p. 149.
- al-Sakhawi, 1:99.
- ibid., p. 36.
- al-Sakhawi, 1:264.
- ibid., 1:275.
- al-Nawawi, Taqrib,
- see Ibn al-Qayyim, Al-Manar al-Munif fi 'l- Sahih
wa 'l-Da`if (ed. A.F. Abu Ghuddah,
Lahore, 1402/1982), pp. 102-105 for a fuller discussion. Ibn al-Qayyim mentions
more than ten clear indications of the forgery of the document, which the
Jews repeatedly attempted to use to deceive the Muslims over the centuries,
but each time a scholar of Hadith intervened to point out the forgery - such incidents
occurred with Ibn Jarir al-Tabari (d. 310), al-Khatib al-Baghdadi (d. 463) and Ibn Taimiyyah (d. 728), who spat
on the document as it was unfolded from beneath its silken covers.
- Suhaib Hasan, Criticism of Hadith, pp. 35-44.
- The Prophet (may Allah bless
him and grant him peace) allowed such narrations, but they are not to be confirmed
nor denied, except for what is confirmed or denied by the Qur'an and Sunnah.
See e.g. An Introduction
to the Principles of Tafseer of Ibn
Taimiyyah (trans. M.A.H. Ansari, Al-Hidaayah, Birmingham, 1414/1993), pp.
- ibid., p. 156.
- see Muqaddimah,
- Fatawa, Ibn Taimiyyah, 6:379-382.
- Isma`il b. Muhammad
al -`Ijlouni, Kashfal-Khafa' (2 vols. in 1, Cairo/Aleppo, N.D.), no. 2016.
- Al-Albani, Silsilah al-Ahadith al-Da`ifah,
al-Khafa', no. 2256.
al-Jami` al-Saghir, no. 2163; Silsilah
al-Khafa', no. 2532; Al-Da`ifah,
al-Khafa', no. 1102; Al-Da`ifah,
- Al-Sahihah, no. 1761.
al-Khafa', no. 2130.
al-Khafa', no. 618.
nos. 1410, 1416.
al-Khafa', no. 1078; Al-Da`ifah,
al-Khafa', no. 1665; Sahih al-Jami` al-Saghir,
no. 416; Da`if al-Jami` al-Saghir,
al-Khafa', no. 2276.
al-Khafa', no. 1362.
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