What's New and Updated?

Updates for the years 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012 and 2013.


26th December 2006

Finally, the much awaited update of the article Reply To Robert Morey's Moon-God Allah Myth: A Look At The Archaeological Evidence is here. In their fervour to hypothesize the lunar characteristics of Allah, the Christian missionaries have unwittingly conceded they have been worshipping the Moon-god cult of Yahweh - in line with their full support for Ditlef Neilsen's discredited study of astral triads in the ancient Near East. The subsection Ditlef Nielsen, Yahweh's “Moonotheism” And The Incorrigible Missionaries provides additional information regarding Neilsen's hypothesis, subsequently highlighting some farcical aspects of Christian missionary polemics. The section From Missionary Injudiciousness To Enlightenment? refutes missionaries' attempts to minimize the impact of the Moon-god hypothesis as a major argument in the Christian community. There are other changes made in the text of the article as well as addition of some more references which the diligent readers might find quite interesting.

This is the first installment of the refutation. The second installment is being worked on at a leisurely pace.

This article is in the section Refutation Of The Borrowing Theories Of The Qur'an.


14th December 2006

The article Rahmānān (RHMNN) - An Ancient South Arabian Moon God? is updated with the addition of three references, viz., H. Hirschfeld's New Researches Into The Composition And Exegesis Of The Qoran, 1902, Asiatic Monographs - Volume III, Royal Asiatic Society: London; D. S. Margoliouth's Mohammed And The Rise Of Islam, 1905, G. P. Putnam's Sons: London & New York and H. U. W. Stanton's The Teaching Of The Qur'ān, 1919, Central Board of Missions and Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge: London. Perhaps the most interesting reference among them is that of Hartwig Hirschfeld who pointed out that the Syriac Christians employed Rahmānā for Jesus.

Also updated is the article Is Hubal The Same As Allah? with the reference D. S. Margoliouth's Mohammed And The Rise Of Islam, 1905, G. P. Putnam's Sons: London & New York, who dismissed Wellahausen's identification of Hubal with Allah as a "hypothesis".

These articles are in the section Refutation Of The Borrowing Theories Of The Qur'an.


2nd December 2006

Due to popular demand, we have added a new section on crucifixion in antiquity in the article Crucifixion Or 'Crucifiction' In Ancient Egypt? This section deals with crucifixion in ancient Assyria, Persia and in the texts of the Hebrew Bible and Jospehus. Addition of this material would add more depth to our understanding of how crucifixion was practiced in antiquity. In the new section, the texts of the ancient writers are rendered in Greek and they are best viewed in the Firefox browser.

This article is in the section Refutation Of External Contradictions In The Qur'an.


29th November 2006

The article Rahmānān (RHMNN) - An Ancient South Arabian Moon God? is updated with the addition of three references; two of them dealing with the Sabaean bronze horse inscription which allegedly contains the name Rahmānān. The third reference authored by Fritz Hommel deals with the recognition of Rahmānān in epigraphic South Arabian as a monotheistic deity (as opposed to the missionaries' claim of it being a Moon god!). This observation was made more than 100 years ago!

This article is in the section Refutation Of The Borrowing Theories Of The Qur'an.


29th October 2006

We had mentioned earlier about the large folios from North Africa which were radiocarbon dated at Oxford, United Kingdom. It seems that these folios are from the Qur'anic manuscript in Tashkent, Uzbekistan, commonly attributed to Caliph ‘Uthman. Although the dates generated by this radiometric technique at either confidence level do not rule out the possibility that this manuscript was produced in ‘Uthman's time, palaeographic studies suggest an 8th century (2nd century hijra) date. The information about radiocarbon and paleographic dating of the Tashkent manuscript is updated in the article An Early Qur'anic Manuscript In Tashkent, Uzbekistan, From 2nd Century Hijra.

Consequently, the article Radiocarbon (Carbon-14) Dating And The Qur'anic Manuscripts has been updated with this information as well as with the views of François Déroche and Efim Rezvan on the issue of radiocarbon dating and Qur'anic manuscripts.

These articles are in the section The Qur'anic Manuscripts.


23rd July 2006

A firm dating of a class of manuscript using palaeography and radiocarbon analysis enables other manuscripts belonging to the same class to be dated with reasonable certainty. The Chester Betty 1404 Qur'anic manuscript belongs to the same class as the one from al-Walid's time. A short discussion on the dating of the former is discussed in the article Radiocarbon (Carbon-14) Dating And The Qur'anic Manuscripts.

This article is in the section The Qur'anic Manuscripts.


12th July 2006

Who are the Samaritans and what does recent historical analyses and scientific investigation into their origins tell us about their role in ancient history? Is the Qur'anic mention of al-Samiri (sometimes translated as "the Samaritan") during the time of Moses consistent with modern investigations into the ancestral origins of the Samaritan sect? A critical discussion of the evidence provided by II Kings 17 in light of the extant archaeological evidence calls into question the veracity of the biblical account. This is discussed in the article The "Samaritan" Error In The Qur'an? This article is now almost completely re-written with new information.

This article is in the section Refutation Of External Contradictions In The Qur'an.


5th July 2006

The dating of the Qur'anic manuscript MS. Or. 2165 has an interesting history. This is added in MS. Or. 2165: A Qur'anic Manuscript From The 1st Century Hijra In The British Library.

This article is in the section The Qur'anic Manuscripts.


25th June 2006

Dr. Robert Morey recommended us his latest book Winning The War Against Radical Islam [2002, Christian Scholars Press: Las Vegas (NV)] and said that it contains more information about Allah being the "Moon god" of Arabia. A careful look at this latest "research" reveals that it is simply a rehash of the earlier stuff. Meet the new book... same as the old one! We decided to update the article Reply To Robert Morey's Moon-God Allah Myth: A Look At The Archaeological Evidence with this latest "research". Also updated with this reference is the article Is Hubal The Same As Allah?

These articles are in the section Refutation Of The Borrowing Theories Of The Qur'an.

The article On The Origins Of The Kufic Script is updated with R. A. Morey's Winning The War Against Radical Islam, 2002, Christian Scholars Press: Las Vegas (NV) and B. M. Stortroen (Ed. G. J. Buitrago), Mecca And Muhammad: A Judaic Christian Documentation Of The Islamic Faith, 2000, Church Of Philadelphia Of The Majority Text (Magna), Inc.: Queen Creek (AZ). The maxim that a Christian apologist quotes yet another apologist without proper verification holds true here too.

This article is in the section The Qur'anic Manuscripts.


24th June 2006

Radiocarbon dating of ancient Qur'anic manuscripts in the literature is very rare. Can radiocarbon dating provide more accurate results than traditional palaeographic techniques and associated methods? The article Radiocarbon (Carbon-14) Dating And The Qur'anic Manuscripts discusses the scientific principles underpinning this radiometric dating technique, together with some practical examples from actual Qur'anic manuscripts. It highlights the strengths and weaknesses of this procedure as compared to more traditional palaeographic based methods.

The outcome of the radiocarbon dating article is the addition of two more manuscripts of the Qur'an, viz., The "Great Umayyad Qur'an" From The Time Of Caliph Al-Walid and A Massive Qur'an From North Africa (1st / 2nd Century Hijra). On the other hand, the article E 20: A Qur'anic Manuscript From 2nd Century Hijra From The Institute Of Oriental Studies, St. Petersburg, Russia has been updated with new information about its palaeographic and radiocarbon datings.

These articles are in the section The Qur'anic Manuscripts.


2nd June 2006

The article Reply To Robert Morey's Moon-God Allah Myth: A Look At The Archaeological Evidence is updated with the addition of R. Morey's two booklets. They are The Moon-God Allah In The Archeology Of The Middle East, 1994, Research And Education Foundation: Newport (PA) and A Reply To Shabbir Ally's Attack On Dr. Robert Morey: An Analysis Of Shabbir Ally's False Accusation And Unscholarly Research, n.d., Faith Defenders: Orange (CA). Examples of misquotes by Morey are discussed.

Also updated is the article Is Hubal The Same As Allah? with C. Brockelmann's (Trans. J. Carmichael & M. Perlmann), History Of The Islamic Peoples, 1949, Routledge & Kegan Paul Limited: London and R. Morey's, A Reply To Shabbir Ally's Attack On Dr. Robert Morey: An Analysis Of Shabbir Ally's False Accusation And Unscholarly Research, n.d., Faith Defenders: Orange (CA).

These articles are in the section Refutation Of The Borrowing Theories Of The Qur'an.


30th May 2006

In their fervour to hypothesise the lunar characteristics of Allah, the Christian missionaries and apologists have claimed that one of Allah's names, al-Rahman, signified a Moon-god in pre-Islamic South Arabia. This ridiculous piece of Christian propaganda is conclusively refuted in the article Rahmānān (RHMNN) - An Ancient South Arabian Moon God? by examining a selection of Jewish and Christian Sabaean inscriptions from South Arabia antecedent to Islam. A brief lexicographic study of the Sabaic word rhmnn shows that it is derived from the root rhm, meaning mercy.

This article is in the section Refutation Of The Borrowing Theories Of The Qur'an.


24th May 2006

Some Orientalists and the Christian missionaries claim that Hubal, the principal idol located in Makkah, is none other than the ancient pre-Islamic correspondent of Allah. A careful reading of the Islamic sources convincingly disproves this highly speculative hypothesis. Also, attempts to connect "Ha-Baal" with Hubal and subsequently Hubal with Allah are shown to be unsupported by the epigraphic evidence by examining the inscriptions from the Ancient Near East. The article Is Hubal The Same As Allah? takes a comprehensive look at the evidence.

This article is in the section Refutation Of The Borrowing Theories Of The Qur'an.


12th May 2006

According to the Christian missionaries, archaeology proves that Allah was a pagan Arab Moon-god from pre-Islamic times. This ridiculous piece of Christian propaganda is conclusively refuted in the article Reply To Robert Morey's Moon-God Allah Myth: A Look At The Archaeological Evidence by examining the archaeological records from the Arabian Peninsula, paying special attention to key archaeological excavations along with the numismatic and epigraphic evidence.

This article is in the section Refutation Of The Borrowing Theories Of The Qur'an.


26th April 2006

On the basis of a single verse from a specific English translation, the Christian missionaries claim that the Qur'an says that Jesus taught people in "old age". In the article The Time Period Of Jesus' Earthly Ministry we examine the claims of the missionaries using the lexical, exegetical and chronological sources with particular reference to key Arabic terms and New Testament chronology criticism, highlights the faulty assumptions, logic and complete untenability of the missionaries' position.

This article is in the section Refutation Of External Contradictions In The Qur'an.

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9th April 2006

The Christian missionaries have claimed that "archaeology" has shown that Sun-worship by the people of Sheba as mentioned in the Qur'an was proven to be incorrect since Moon-worship was prevalent in this particular region. The article The Queen Of Sheba And Sun Worship provides a devastating refutation of the claim of the missionaries and uses the archaeological evidence from the Kingdom of Sheba in the light of modern scholarship to show that solar deities were predominantly worshipped in this region. This is also supported by literary evidence.

This article is in the section Refutation Of External Contradictions In The Qur'an.


1st April 2006

Addition of A Qur'anic Manuscript From 1st Century Hijra: Part Of Surah al-Sajda And Surah al-Ahzab. This manuscript is dated to first half of the first century of hijra by Hans-Casper Graf von Bothmer.

Also updated is A Perg. 2: A Qur'anic Manuscript From 1st Century Hijra with the work of A. Fedeli who discusses various aspects of this manuscript.

These are in the section The Qur'anic Manuscripts.


22nd March 2006

According to Christian missionaries, the use of the word dirham in the Qur'anic story of Yusuf is an anachronism because dirham was introduced during the time of ‘Umar, some 10 years after the death of the Prophet. Furthermore, they add that only coins were counted, and, there were no coins in the time of Joseph, it was bullion. The article "Dirham" In The Time Of Joseph? assesses the claims of missionaries by examining the trade in ancient Egypt together with a historical and philological examination of the word dirham.

Please be aware that this article has lots of information and may require more than one reading. As usual please do not forget to go through the references and notes towards the end of the article.

This article is in the section Refutation Of External Contradictions In The Qur'an.


12th March 2006

Addition of the following references:

Abdullah Al-Araby, Islam Unveiled, 2002 (10th Edition), The Pen Vs. The Sword: Los Angeles (CA) in the articles Historical Errors Of The Qur'an: Pharaoh & Haman, On The Sources Of The Qur'anic Dhul-Qarnayn and On The Sources Of The Story Of Cain & Abel In The Qur'an.

N. L. Geisler & R. M. Brooks, When Skeptics Ask, 2001, Baker Books: Grand Rapids (MI) in the articles Historical Errors Of The Qur'an: Pharaoh & Haman and Textual Reliability / Accuracy Of The New Testament.

C. L. Blomberg, "The Historical Reliability Of The New Testament" in W. L. Craig, Reasonable Faith: Christian Truth And Apologetics, 1994 (Rev.), Crossway Books: Wheaton (IL) in the article Textual Reliability / Accuracy Of The New Testament.

E. F. Caner & E. M. Caner, More Than A Prophet: An Insider's Response To Muslim Beliefs About Jesus & Christianity, 2003, Kregal Publications: Grand Rapids (MI) in the articles Is The Qur'anic Story Of Solomon & Sheba From The Targum Sheni? and Textual Reliability / Accuracy Of The New Testament.


4th March 2006

What do modern linguistic studies and Egyptology reveal about the word "Pharaoh" and its use in ancient Egypt? Are references to the sovereign of Egypt in the Qur'an and the Old Testament consistent with the ancient Egyptological data? The article Qur'anic Accuracy Vs. Biblical Error: The Kings & Pharaohs Of Egypt deals with this issue in detail and has now been almost completely rewritten with more interesting material. As usual please do not forget to go through the references and notes towards the end of the article.

This article is in the section Refutation Of External Contradictions In The Qur'an.


22nd February 2006

Pirke de-Rabbi Eli‘ezer has been claimed to be the "source" of many stories in the Qur'an. We decided to have a closer and comprehensive look at this alleged "source" in the article On Pirke De-Rabbi Eli‘ezer As One Of The Sources Of The Qur'an.

This article is in the section Refutation Of The Borrowing Theories Of The Qur'an.


27th January 2006

Is the Qur'anic account of Haman appropriated from the Hebrew Bible and Jewish mythology? A critical examination of the Biblical account coupled with an investigation into the ancient Egyptian historical records, paying special attention to the hieroglyphic evidence, concludes with a re-evaluation against Orientalist and missionary suppositions in favour of the Qur'an. The article Historical Errors Of The Qur'an: Pharaoh & Haman has now been almost completely rewritten with more interesting material. As usual please do not forget to go through the references and notes towards the end of the article.

This article is in the section Refutation Of External Contradictions In The Qur'an.


22nd January 2006

Just when we though we were finished with the Arabic inscriptions from the first century of hijra... we came across The Earliest Dated Kufic Inscription From Qā‘ al-Mu‘tadil, Near Al-Hijr (Saudi Arabia), 24 AH. This inscription is the earliest dated Kufic inscription with a photograph. It was written by Zuhayr "at the time of ‘Umar's death" in 24 AH, thus mentioning the name of the second Caliph. This inscription, it appears, is destined to be the most famous of all the Arabic inscriptions as the UNESCO has added it to the Memory of the World Register of Documentary Collections.

This is present in the section The Arabic & Islamic Inscriptions.


16th January 2006

The growth of the Armenian canon is quite complex because the evidence available is far from complete and there is a no clear and consistent conception of canonicity. This is reflected in various canons and recensions of the Armenian Bible. The article Canons & Recensions Of The Armenian Bible deals with canons and recensions, three of each, of the Armenian Bible. It is worthwhile comparing these "inspired" list of scriptures with the Protestant and Roman Catholic canons of the Bible.

The article is in the section Canon Of The Bible.


9th January 2006

The articles Is The Qur'anic Story Of Solomon & Sheba From The Targum Sheni?, Is The Qur'anic Surah Of Joseph Borrowed From Jewish Midrashic Sources? and The Story Of Abraham And Idols In The Qur'an And Midrash Genesis Rabbah are updated with the reference J. W. Sweetman, Islam And Christian Theology: A Study Of The Interpretation Of Theological Ideas In The Two Religions, 1945, Volume I, Part 1 (Preparatory History Survey of the Early Period), Lutterworth Press: London & Redhill.

These articles are in the section Refutation Of The Borrowing Theories Of The Qur'an.


4th January 2006

The article The Qurra Papyrus - An Admonition Addressed To Basil About His Duties & Instruction To Come To Headquarters - Egyptian National Library Inv. No. 341, 91 AH has been updated with a new image and more information. Dated to Shawwāl, 91 AH / August 710 CE. It is a light brown, fine papyrus. The letter is written by a scribe called ‘Umair in black ink on recto, verso is blank; diacritical points are but sparingly added. Words are freely divided at the end of a line. Three selis-joints are visible.

This is added in the section The Arabic Papyri.


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